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Developing Alternative Frameworks for Community-based Conservation: Piloting Payments for Environmental Services (PES) in Tanzania's Simanjiro Plains

Nelson, Fred

Developing Alternative Frameworks for Community-based Conservation: Piloting Payments for Environmental Services (PES) in Tanzania's Simanjiro Plains

Case study on piloting payments for environmental services (PES-Biodiversity) in the Simanjiro Plains, Tanzania - The Simanjiro plains provide a key wet season dispersal area for wildebeest and zebra migrating from northern Tanzania’s Tarangire National Park. The plains lie within the boundaries of the lands of three villages occupied by Maasai pastoralists. Wildlife populations have declined substantially over the past two decades, largely as a result of illegal over-hunting and the spread of agricultural land uses in the area. Efforts to enlist local community support for wildlife conservation have, since the 1970s, been undermined by conflicts over land tenure and resource use. In order to address the deteriorating status of wildlife populations and their habitat on the Simanjiro plains, an alternative framework for community-based conservation was developed starting in 2005 through a payments for ecosystem services (PES) agreement. This agreement emerged from the collaboration of local communities with a diverse group of NGOs and private tourism companies, several of which have extensive and long-term experience in the area. The agreement built on customary pastoralist land use practices to build village-level incentives for wildlife conservation. The agreement has produced an important new framework for community-based conservation in Tanzanian village lands by overcoming existing institutional impediments to community involvement in wildlife conservation through a cost-effective and administratively simple PES structure. This case provides another significant variation on the Community-Based Wildlife Management paradigm in Africa, by adding conditional PES in a unique way: the tour operators never take their customers to visit the areas where communities are being compensated for adjusting their land management practices, but the system developed remains in the mutual interest of the tour operators, the tourists, and the communities nonetheless.

Michael Colby
USAID/E3/LTRM
Mar 06, 2013 12:00 AM
none
Wildlife Conservation Society
Project technical document (e.g. focusing on one or more aspects, such as technical approach, monitoring, application of a specific tool, etc), Site-based case study, Tool/methodology (e.g. legal analysis, value chain analysis, participatory methods, rapid assessment)
 
Africa - East
Tanzania
Simanjiro/Tarangire
USAID, Sand County Foundation, Bradley Fund for the Environment
TransLinks
Biodiversity
Rangeland
Tourism
Whole Landscape
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Promoted local land use planning and appropriate resource tenure systems - [Critical]
Fostered innovation, social learning, and adaptive management - [Accomplished]
Promoted or developed economic strategies for natural resource management - [Critical]
Strengthened markets and NRM market incentives - [Critical]
Invested in local organizations - [Accomplished]
Created a framework for better NRM choices - [Critical]
Proportional equivalence between benefits and costs - [Accomplished]
Local stakeholder input into public decisions and policy - [Critical]
Natural resource authority and functions distribution - [Critical]
Continuous and inclusive consultations - [Critical]
Participatory Planning
Land use planning
Payments for ecosystem services
Devolution to communities
Managed grazing
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Environmental/productivity - [Communal]
Economic/income generation - [Communal]
Governance/empowerment - [Communal]
Resources - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Economic - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Governance - [External or structural policies that influenced success or failure]
Lessons learned (Success Story)
 
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