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USAID Indonesia Mission

by USAID — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:00 AM
Contributors: Jean Brennan

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Water and Environment Program (Basic Human Services)


The Environmental Services Program (ESP) is a five-year program which was developed by USAID/Indonesia in response to the Presidential Initiative of 2002 to improve sustainable management of water resources. This initiative supports activities in the following three key areas:

  • Access to clean water and sanitation services
  • Improved watershed management
  • Increasing the productivity of water

In response to the decentralization of many government responsibilities in recent years in Indonesia, the ESP program was developed as part of the FY 2004-2008 country strategy to strengthen a moderate, stable and productive Indonesia. USAID will be implementing the country strategy around four major strategic objectives (SO):

  1. Improved quality of decentralized basic education
  2. Higher quality basic human services utilized
  3. Effective democratic and decentralized governance, and
  4. Effective systems of economic governance to increase trade and investment and drive new job creation

The ESP program provides technical assistance and related services to impact Strategic Objective No. 2 above, Higher Quality Basic Human Services Utilized (BHS). BHS focuses on the interdependence of health and the environment and their impact on health outcomes. To achieve this, USAID will increase access and utilization of key health and environmental services, particularly to those currently underserved or not served at all. Building capacity at the local government level to better deliver these services will assure sustainability of the technical assistance. The services considered integral to this objective include water, food/nutrition, and health services. Three intermediate results support the achievement of the SO:

  • Governments, communities and private sector mobilized to advocate for improved health, water and sanitation services
  • Essential services delivered effectively at the local level; and
  • Improved practices and behaviors adopted at the community and household levels

Orangutan Conservation Support Program


USAID actively promotes orangutan habitat conservation, which is a specific priority of the U.S. Congress. The $11.5 million initiative for FY 2004-2008 is a key investment to help Indonesia preserve some of the world’s most highly valued biodiversity in Kalimantan (Borneo) and Sumatra.

Orangutan habitat conservation projects are working in the world’s last remaining areas with significant orangutan populations in the wild: the provinces of East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, and North Sumatra. The main drivers of habitat loss and population decline include forest conversion and logging which are consequences of poor land use decisions that followed the push toward decentralization in Indonesia.


East Kalimantan’s last large orangutan habitat

The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and World Education (WE) are working to protect critical habitat and improve livelihoods in East Kalimantan. TNC is working to secure about 50,000 hectares from timber production, setting aside the area as an orangutan refuge and promoting good forest management practices in the buffer zone. A collaborative management approach is catalyzing local governments to take action while creating and strengthening community organizations to protect and wisely manage valuable forests. These efforts have effectively stopped illegal logging in the project areas.

TNC and WE have helped indigenous Dayak communities to improve livelihoods and secure land rights. For example, in one area previously zoned as a forest concession the community successfully pressed authorities to give the land protection status to support traditional uses. The forest is largely intact given the rugged landscape and serves as a home to a diverse blend of orangutans, leopard, sunbear, deer, hornbills, and other endangered species. Now the forest is Dayak traditional land, and the community and local government funds and manages park patrols, forest management, and surveys of ecological and biological resources.

Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan
World Education (WE) and the Orangutan Foundation International (OFI) are working with Tanjung Puting National Park management to provide patrols, training, border demarcation and enforcement, and water quality monitoring. The project is improving stakeholder-based decision processes related to conservation and development inside the park, together with community learning in agricultural development and natural resources management. Farmer food security and income generation is improving through the project’s agricultural development research on various crops and livestock.

Orangutan habitat protection, North Sumatra
Conservation International (CI) and the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) are working in Batang Toru, North Sumatra to support communities and partners to protect this important watershed and orangutan habitat while improving livelihoods. The program is improving enforcement effectiveness and catalyzing a local strategy for conservation. Through this process the community is developing conservation-based income alternatives and supporting initiatives of local entrepreneurs.


TNC’s work in the Lesan and Wehea areas of East Kalimantan has led to effective forest management and a reduction in habitat loss and hunting. The program has facilitated the development of co-management structures in these sites involving local district governments and communities. Substantial financial support from local governments is evidence of local commitment to the program and is a model for effective and financially sustainable conservation.

In Central Kalimantan’s Tanjung Puting National Park, World Education (WE) and the Orangutan Foundation International (OFI) have brought together the interests of the park and nearby villagers. WE is successfully developing the local rural economy through agricultural improvements. Not having to buy rice spares household income and helps to reduce the temptation to illegally log the park or adjacent forests. The program built two community centers in villages within the park boundaries. By acting as bridge between the villagers and the park authorities, WE and OFI staff in the centers provide visible, daily evidence of support for the communities. Participatory patrolling involves nearby villages, OFI, WE and the forest police. OFI’s guard post and patrols continue to provide extensive ground coverage and protection to the core of the park.

In North Sumatra, Conservation International secured the support of the District Head of South Tapanuli to establish an orangutan conservation management entity in the Batang Toru watershed. The local government has also taken the additional step of requesting that the national Ministry of Forestry designate the area as a National Park.

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Orangutan Conservation Services Program (OCSP)

By early 2007 USAID will launch a new $8 million, 3-year program targeting select wild orangutan populations in Kalimantan and Sumatra. The USAID program will:

1) reduce the level of threat to select orangutan populations,

2) develop strategies that garner support by a multi-stakeholder constituency,

3) establish networks to support improved law enforcement and conservation management, and

4) set up sustainable financing schemes for long-term conservation at the sites.

This project will not support orangutan rehabilitation, re-introductions, or translocation efforts. This decision is in keeping with the scientific guidance that efforts with the highest conservation value are those protecting the habitat of populations in the wild.

Global Development Alliance: Forest Certification and Combating Illegal Logging

Indonesia - GDA Factsheet Forest Certification
The USAID/Indonesia Mission has distributed general introdoctory information about the Global Development Alliance: Forest Certification and Combating Illegal Logging; a fact sheet developed by TNC and WWF Alliance.

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For more information on the USAID Indonesia Mission Program contact:

USAID/Indonesia Press and Outreach Office
Tel: (021) 34435-9327

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