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Collection: Gender and Sustainable NRM FRAME Community Archived Resources

by Carmen Tedesco last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:41 AM
Men and women play different roles when it comes to natural resource management. Experience from the field is showing that accounting for these differences in gender roles allows NRM practitioners to create programs that are more effective, equitable and efficient.
File Gender Responsive Land Tenure Development by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:40 AM
This publication is predominantly aimed at staff in development cooperation and in partner countries, decision makers in and politicians involved with development cooperation. It outlines the land tenure situation women find themselves in world-wide and the challenge development cooperation faces in wishing to narrow the gaps between gender imbalances in land tenure and internationally declared aims for gender equality (chapter 2). The specific role of and possibilities for development cooperation in improving the gender-effectivity of land tenure policy and law forms one main part of the paper (chapter 3), possibilities and methods to better accommodate gender specific intentions in programs and projects and to avoid inadvertently favoring either sex, excluding certain groups from benefits or even depriving them of previous economic, social, legal or political options the other main part (chapter 4) of the paper. Gender responsive land tenure development means mainstreaming gender considerations in all fields in which development cooperation is active and which have direct or indirect influence on the gender balance of access to, control over and benefits from land. It thus represents a cross-sectional task at macro, meso and micro level. Support to the required structural change can be rendered by way of policy dialogue, policy and country analyses, land related strategy development as well as sector and regional program assistance (e.g. agrarian reforms, public expenditure reform, economic liberalization, environmental protection, education etc.). Also, development cooperation can offer structural and procedural input into economic, agricultural and social programs, into institution strengthening and capacity building, into the cooperation with non-governmental organizations as well as private and public contractors (e.g. consultants) etc. The land tenure situation and in particular its cultural, legal, social and economic roots and consequences being so different in different countries, gender-responsive land tenure development, too, should be approached through participatory processes, the definition of locally appropriate gender-specific indicators and effective institutionalization of monitoring and evaluation. In order to render institutional change effective and lasting major emphasis must be placed on gender training of staff in development cooperation, partner organizations as well as in the civil service of the countries concerned, improved involvement of female staff as well as utmost attention to possible conflicts arising from the (socio-politically, -economically or -ecologically motivated) need to strengthen women’s position on the one and that of traditional norms and values on the other hand.
File Gender and Sustainable Development in Drylands by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:40 AM
This document looks at the relationship between gender and dryland management, based on an analysis of relevant field experiences in Africa and Asia, identified on the Internet, highlighting the role of women and men in dryland areas for food security, land conservation/desertification and the conservation of biodiversity. It makes available key findings related to these issues in a number of projects and programmes in Africa and Asia. It also outlines different aspects to be considered for achieving a gender-sensitive and sustainable dryland management.
File Women and income generating activities and conservation of natural resources: Medicinal, culinary and aromatic plants in the Sudan by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:40 AM
This paper aims at presenting information on the role of Medicinal, Culinary and Aromatic Plants in the conservation of natural resources and in the generation of income for rural women.
File Engendering Eden - Volume III - Women, Gender and ICDPs in South and South-East Asia: Lessons Learnt and Experiences Shared by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:40 AM
In recent years there has been an increasing emphasis placed on linking the conservation of natural resources with the development of local communities through ICDPs (Integrated Conservation and Development Projects) and CBNRM (Community Based Natural Resource Management). At the same time, pressures have increased for a more equitable development process drawing in otherwise marginalized groups such as women. However there is inexperience and a lack of knowledge concerning how to achieve this. The "Engendering" Eden research program aimed to fill some of the existing gaps on issues concerned with the relationships between women, gender and ICDPs. It aimed to understand what differences and inequities exist within communities and how these affect participation and the distribution of benefits and costs in relation to conservation and development. Lessons concerning how to address gender issues and women's exclusion have been learnt and recommendations made as to how to incorporate them into future work to achieve more equitable conservation policy and practice.
File The Major Importance of "minor" Resources: Women and Plant Biodiversity by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:40 AM
Understanding women’s influence on plant biodiversity is essential to our ability to conserve plant genetic resources, especially those plants that are useful to humans. Contrary to previous thinking, it is becoming clear that women know most about these plants because, throughout history, women’s daily work has required more of this knowledge. This paper describes how women predominate in plant biodiversity management in their roles as housewives, plant gatherers, homegardeners, herbalists, seed custodians and informal plant breeders. But because most plant use, management and conservation occurs within the domestic realm, and because the principal values of plant genetic resources are localised and non-monetary, they are largely invisible to outsiders and are easily undervalued. Gender bias has prevailed in scientific research about people-plant relationships, and conservation policies and programmes are still largely blind to the importance of the domestic sphere, of women and of gender relations for biodiversity conservation, and to the importance of plant biodiversity for women’s status and welfare. Traditional knowledge and indigenous rights to plants are everywhere sex-differentiated, and gender inequalities are also implicated in processes leading to biological erosion. Achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly those related to sustainable use and to benefit sharing, will require much greater attention to women’s knowledge, management and rights, and to the domestic sphere. Examples of positive steps needed include: prioritising the conservation of plants that are important to women curators and reversing dynamics that lead to their erosion; recognising, valuing and promoting the inter-generational transmission of women’s traditional knowledge and practices; recognising indigenous rights systems and, within these, women’s rights to plants and land resources that sustain these plants; ensuring women’s full participation in decisions and policies that affect their plant rights and the status and welfare that they derive from plant resources; and promoting and disseminating research that enhances our knowledge of the above.
File From a Gender perspective: Notions of land tenure security in the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:40 AM
Land tenure within customary systems is dynamic and flexible. Whereas in the past communal forms of landholding dominated, individualisation of rights to land within customary systems has occurred for some time now. Privatisation however, i.e. the registration and titling of rights to certain plots of land is a more recent development, apart from freehold titles to land which were introduced during colonialism but intended only for a very limited part of society. Formal titling has long been regarded as the only way to ensure land tenure security to peasants (smallholders), thereby enabling modernisation of the agricultural sector. Experiences from countries such as Kenya showed that certain assumptions concerning the consequences of titling such as higher rates of investment and thus increased productivity do not hold true. (compare e.g. Hilhorst 2000, Yngstrom 2002, Jacobs 2002) Instead land concentration and landlessness have been on the increase and the practice of registering land in the name of the head of household, predominantly men, led to a further erosion of the generally marginal land rights women had held within the respective customary systems. By now even the World Bank acknowledged that private titling might, besides being too costly, not necessary as the customary system can work just as effectively. The Bank now favours to „increase security of property rights within given constraints.” (World Bank 2001:7) In the land laws that were newly created in quite a number of African countries during the 1990s, this realisation is however little reflected. And also its impact on the actual policies of the World Bank, an influential player in the creation of new land legislation, remains to be seen. In this paper notions of security in relation to access and/or ownership to land will be discussed in reference to Tanzania in general and the Uluguru mountains in Morogoro region more specifically. On the basis of more than 40 qualitative interviews some hypothesis will be formulated for discussion. The interviews were held in summer 2002 with women and men from a village, Ruvuma, and a rural part of Morogoro municipality, Nugutu. Both places are situated in the Uluguru Mountains to the south of Morogoro, the regional capital of Morogoro region. The names of all interview partners have been changed.
File Gender and Sustainable Regional Development: Lessons from a Mexican NGO by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:40 AM
Discusses role of Gender in Development
Se trata de una propuesta productiva de carácter social, destinada a la generación de empleo para mujeres desocupadas o sub-ocupadas del Puerto y zonas periféricas de Mar del Plata, marginadas de la actividad pesquera luego de la profunda crisis provocada a partir de la sobre explotación de la merluza en el año 1997. El objetivo consistió en la elaboración de semiconservas de pescado en forma artesanal, logrando un producto de alto valor agregado, mediante un proceso mano de obra intensivo,desarrollando ulteriormente una fuente de empleo alternativo estable. Como consecuencia del éxito de este proyecto, y dada su exigencia de materia prima de primera calidad -fresca y bien tratada-, se logró instalar un producto novedoso, de alta calidad y precio accesible.
File Better livelihoods for poor people: The Role of Land Policy by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:41 AM
Land policy, land rights and land reform have a critical bearing on economic development and poverty reduction in both rural and urban areas of the developing world. But land issues are often complex and politically difficult. For this reason they may be neglected. This draft Issues Paper seeks to promote discussion about the importance of land in poverty reduction strategy processes, in different regions of the word and across different sectors. The draft has been prepared following a series of regional workshops on land policy sponsored by the World Bank, in which DFID participated, and takes account comments received through this process.
File Collective Action and Property Rights for Sustainable Development by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 02:38 PM
Millions of rural poor people in developing countries depend on natural resources—farmland and rangeland, fishing waters, forests—for their livelihoods. But whether they can use these resources sustainably to climb out of poverty often depends on the institutions that govern resource use—property rights and collective action. A multiplicity of property rights and collective action arrangements exist around the globe, and researchers have learned numerous lessons about what kinds of arrangements work best under what conditions. Making property rights and collective action work for the poor is not as simple as issuing new land titles or mindlessly applying standards that have worked elsewhere. Instead, it requires a detailed understanding of local resource conditions and social relationships, among other factors. This collection of briefs draws on a wide body of research conducted through the Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). It describes the complex issues surrounding property rights and collective action that policymakers and development professionals must understand and address if they are to successfully promote sustainable and pro-poor management of natural resources. We are grateful to editors Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Monica Di Gregorio, as well as all of the contributors, for their insights on this crucial topic.
File Participatory exclusions forestry and gender by Carmen Tedesco — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:42 AM
The idea of people's participation has long been part of development thinking. Today the management of local forest resources by village communities is widely accepted as an institutional imperative. It is therefore essential to examine how these institutions perform, especially from the perspective of the more disadvantaged. Based on extensive fieldwork among community forestry groups in India and Nepal and existing cases studies, this paper demonstrates how seemingly participatory institutions can exclude significant sections, such as women. It provides a typology of participation, spells out the gender equity and efficiency implications of such exclusions, and analyzes what underlies them. It also outlines a conceptual framework to help analyze the process of gender exclusion and how it might be alleviated.
File CIFOR News by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:42 AM
This issue of CIFOR news contains an article on the NWP presentation at a CIFOR-sponsored workshop in Ouagadougou in February 2004.
File Adding Natural Resource Indicators: An Opportunity to Strengthen the MCA Eligibility Process by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 11:43 AM
A critical discussion by the Center for GLobal Development of the MCC's selection and incorporation of two NRM indicators into the official scorecard.
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