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by Portal Web Editor last modified Jan 10, 2013 12:09 PM









Country Programs: Inodonesia




Indonesia, the fourth largest country in the world and recognized as the richest in biodiversity, is a nation in transition. The nation's commitment to decentralization has been strengthened by recent government reforms and legislation on regional autonomy. Indonesia is also increasingly looking to its vast marine and coastal resources as an engine for its development. These changes provide unprecedented challenges as well as opportunity for the establishment of effective coastal governance at national and local levels. While major investments have been made in coastal and marine conservation and management in Indonesia, until recently the integrated coastal management (ICM) approach has not been widely applied outside of national protected areas, and a national focal point for integrated oceans and coast policy was lacking. In 1998, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries was created, presenting a major opportunity to develop a coherent approach.



Fish vendors in Sumatra, Indonesia. Coastal fisheries are essential for the nation's food security.

Good ICM Practices

North Sulawesi
  • Community-based marine sanctuaries
  • Village management plans and implementing ordinances
  • Project and control site monitoring

  • Participatory provincial strategic planning
  • Coastal atlas as tool for information-based planning
  • Village-scale sustainable shrimp mariculture

East Kalimantan
  • Bay management


ICM in Indonesia
When the Coastal Resources Management Program (CRMP) initiated work in Indonesia in 1996 through the project known locally as Proyek Pesisir, there were numerous marine and coastal programs already ongoing. These typically large programs focused on creating national marine parks, establishing technical capacity in geographic information systems, and planning work at both the site and national levels; few projects had moved forward into implementation. CRMP is using three primary strategies to advance ICM in Indonesia: 1) implementing place-based demonstrations of ICM good practice that address a range of coastal situations; 2) investing sufficiently in monitoring and documentation so that good practices are “proven;” and, 3) developing legal and institutional enabling frameworks and capacity at local levels and national scales to sustain and foster replication of ICM.


In North Sulawesi, community-based ICM planning and management strategies are being implemented. One of the first and most tangible results was the creation of a marine sancutary which is already paying dividends for local villagers through perceived increases in fisheries production, increased coral cover and expanded economic opportunities. A number of manuals have been produced to assist communities manage their reefs, including a monitoring manual and a guide for organizing a community clean-up of coral-destroying Crown-of-Thorns starfish.  Because the sites in North Sulawesi were designed as pilot projects, extensive baselines were established in 1997 both of physical and socioeconomic conditions at the sites, with intermediate assessments conducted in 2000.


In Lampung, Proyek Pesisir has created a highly participatory process of planning and management at the provincial scale. The Lampung Coastal Resources Atlas, defined for the first time the extent and condition of the province's natural resources, through a combination of secondary information and the input of over 270 local stakeholders and 60 government and non-government organizations. The Atlas provided the foundation for the development of a Lampung coastal strategic plan.  The Atlas and strategic plan spurred intense media coverage and led to significant support from provincial agencies that will provide funding for plan implementation. The project field office has since become an Institut Pertanian Bogor (Bogor Agricultural Institute) university-based coastal extension initiative. Complementing the provincial work and to support action on priority coastal issues, two community-based initiatives—one in Pematang Pasir with an emphasis on sustainable aquaculture good practice, and the other on an island in Lampung Bay focused on marine sanctuary management—are being implemented.





A young woman net fishing inshore in Lampung, Indonesia. Sustaining artisanal fishing under increased development pressure poses a challenge to coastal managers.


In East Kalimantan, the principal focus is on developing a profile and integrated management plan for Balikpan Bay and its watershed—the commercial and industrial hub of the province's coastal ecosystem. This profile—again done with a high level of local participation and consultation—is assisting in the development of the first-ever bay plan in Indonesia, and has already resulted in a moratorium on shrimp mariculture in one delta region. The current emphasis is on gaining approval for the integrated management plan for Balikpapan Bay's ecosystem, while enhancing awareness, building partnerships and networks, and strengthening provincial and local government capacity to implement the plan.




Journalists from Java and Sumatra interview a shrimp farmer from a mariculture project as part of a Proyek Pesisir outreach initiative to enhance media reporting of coastal issues.


The on-the-ground work in field projects was complemented by Proyek Pesisir's involvement in shaping a national coastal policy and program. There are three strategies for achieving the project's national goals.




Building on a successrul partnership with Bogor Agricultural Institute, CRMP helped establish an 11-university network known as INCUNE to work together to build ICM capacity and knowledge. 

First, enabling frameworks for sustained management efforts are being developed. As pilot projects are completed, experiences and good practices are being documented and institutionalized within government, which has the responsibility and capacity to both sustain existing sites and launch additional ones. This is being done through a combination oflegal insturments, guidebooks and training.


Second, the new Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries is being supported to develop a law and guidelines for decentralized ICM. Now, more than ever, there is a need and demand for a national coastal law. The new marine ministry is expanding its capacity, and the passage of the 1999 law extending regional government authority over their marine resources out to 12 miles provides an unprecedented opportunity to make tangible progress towards effective coastal management. CRMP is helping the Indonesian government launch a consultation process to prepare a draft coastal law that can be sent to Parliament in 2002.


Finally, the project has recognized and is strengthening the unique role that universities play in coastal management. From its inception, CRMP in Indonesia has partnered with Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)—the leading marine university in Indonesia. Through its Centre for Coastal and Marine Resources Studies (CCMRS), the university has taken a hands-on role in the Lampung site, established a national ICM reference library (Website:, initiated an annual ICM learning workshop, and provided research support to other sites. Building from the positive experience with IPB and CCMRS, an Indonesia-wide network of 11 universities (INCUNE) was created. INCUNE members created a strategy for shared learning and evaluation that outlines how the universities will work together to build experience and capacity, and exchange information about coastal planning and management.




RESOURCES:  Indonesia


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