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File Whose woods these are: Community-based forest management in Africa KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Benin, Ethiopia, Niger, Zambia, community forestry, financing, forest enterprises, market de...
File Twenty-month evaluation of A.I.D.'s Forest Resources Management II (FRM II) project KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, World. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Asia. C...
File Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Africa: A review SUMMARY: This compilation of case studies examines community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) experiences in Africa and analyzes the determinants of CB...
File Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Africa: A review SUMMARY: This compilation of case studies examines community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) experiences in Africa and analyzes the determinants of CB...
File Guinea natural resources management project: Final report, agroforestry/forestry component KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Guinea, marketing, small enterprise, agroforestry, forest reserve, reforestation, soil conse...
File Whither the people? Demographic, tenurial, and agricultural aspects of the tropical forestry action plan. Center for International Development and Environment KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, World. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Asia. C...
File Surviving the cut: Natural forest management in the humid tropics KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, World. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Asia. ...
File Community-based natural resources management: An annotated bibliography KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, World. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Asia. ...
File World directory of country environmental studies: An annotated bibliography of natural resource profiles, plans, and strategies, 3rd Edition KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, World. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Australia. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Afri...
File Participatory Environmental Resource Management, Tanzania KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Tanzania, ecotourism, environmental values, sustainable forestry, degraded lands, forest deg...
File Community-based natural resources management: An annotated bibliography
File The case of Duru-Haitemba community-based forest management project in Babati District, Arusha Region, Tanzania KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Tanzania, community forestry, income distribution, logging, degraded lands, institutions, la...
File Study on coordination in sustainable forestry development KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, World. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Asia. C...
File Senegal reforestation project: Project highlights KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Senegal, market development, agroforestry, forest degradation, reforestation, co-management,...
File The greening of AID 1980-1990 KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, World. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Community-based Natural Forest Management, Asia. C...
File Assessment of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Southern Africa: Final Report The process of CBNRM is a key component activity within the RCSA\rquote s Natural Resource Management Project, initiated in Southern Africa in 1989. It depends...
File Internal review of Nouabale-Ndoki project after completion of project year two KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Congo (Brazzaville), community forestry, buffer zone, conservation, protected areas, forestr...
File Final evaluation: Niger forestry and land-use planning project KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Niger, community forestry, industrial forestry, conservation, forest reserve, land use, for...
File Final evaluation: Niger forestry and land-use planning project The Niger Forestry Land Use Planning (FLUP) project evaluation was conducted in 1987 at the request of the USAID/Niger general development office and the FLUP p...
File Community based conservation experience in Tanzania: An assessment of lessons learned KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Tanzania, ecotourism, income distribution, joint ventures, conservation, hunting, wildlife, ...

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File Directory of Country Environmental Studies: An annotated bibliography of environmental and natural resource profiles and assessments by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
An annotated bibliography of environmental and natural resource profiles and assessments
File Final report of the Rwanda natural resources management project by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
This report reviews the brief, tumultuous history, laudable accomplishments, and difficulties of DAI and colleague's Rwanda Natural Resources Management Project (NRMP) from October 1990, to June 1994. USAID created the NRMP in 1988 as a regrouping of several natural resource activities and NGOs supported by the Rwanda mission. The NRMP was designed with the objectives of combating erosion, promoting sustainable agriculture in marshlands, conserving natural forests, and building effective action and cooperation among government bodies dealing with the environment. Any hopes for project implementation were quickly overrun by the genocide and war in Rwanda. In its very brief functional life, NRMP achievements included the following: Managing the process leading to review and formal approval by the Rwandan government of the National Environmental Strategy for Rwanda (SNER) and the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP); Advocating the preparation of acceptable environmental impact statements as a sine qua non to obtaining donor approval of programs and projects; Integrating the SNER/NEAP into the three-year Rwanda Public Investment Program; Assisting Rwandan government agencies and nongovernmental organizations in the preparation of realistic annual work plans.
File Structure and growth of small enterprises in the forest-products sector in southern and eastern Africa by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
There are a growing number of forest-product enterprises in Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Employment and income from these business ventures are important in rural and urban economies in these developing countries. This study complements others that have been done in the region. Grass, cane and bamboo products are the most common merchantable items in these enterprises, followed by wood products. Additional enterprises trade and transport forest products. Women are the majority in the grass, cane and bamboo work forces, and are strongly represented in trade business. Men dominate in the woodworking enterprises. Many of these enterprises are run in homes. Woodworking and forest product trade is poised to grow rapidly, while grass, cane and bamboo businesses are likely to remain just a means of providing sustenance. Since most people are employed by grass, cane and bamboo enterprises, this dichotomy should be noted. Support programs could be aimed at helping these people adopt more sustainable and lucrative employment. Access to raw materials limits forest-product enterprises more than other enterprises. This may reflect shortages of these resources due to lack of management, and/or and inability to compete with larger-scale enterprises. An understanding of the enterprises that have the strongest potential for growth would help to focus assistance projects, and with assistance, the small-scale enterprises may be able to manage resource use better and gain better footing among competitors. These implications should be considered in project planning and policy intervention. Designers of assistance programs need to have clear goals and priorities, have an understanding of the economic and social intricacies each of the types of enterprises, and then tailor the assistance to the specific needs of that group. In this way, specific groups will be targeted and program goals will be met more efficiently and effectively.
File World directory of country environmental studies: An annotated bibliography of natural resource profiles, plans, and strategies, 3rd Edition by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
Virtually every country of the world has prepared at least one report on its environment.
File Assessment of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Southern Africa: Final Report by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 11, 2013 02:31 PM
The process of CBNRM is a key component activity within the RCSA\rquote s Natural Resource Management Project, initiated in Southern Africa in 1989. It depends heavily on the utilization and conservation of the big game resources, and on wildlife tourism. The CBNRM process has been a success because the combination of forces related to high visibility of the resource, market opportunity and need for action motivated governments and dependent resource users to work together. In addition, the wildlife-focused CBNRM is effectively reaching the traditionally disadvantaged rural poor because their marginal communal lands (in terms of agriculture) are becoming profitable as wildlife production systems. The program is making a meaningful contribution to many local economies previously dependent on subsistence farming and remittances. The report suggests that the success of wildlife management has overshadowed many other natural resource management opportunities that are beginning to develop. However, the mechanisms for community action and entrepreneurship are in place and sustainable, and expansion to other resource development opportunities is a matter of introducing additional technology, extension education and market development linkages into the existing system. The report puts forth the following recommendations for improving the productivity, profitability and sustainability of the resource base: Expansion of CBNRM efforts should be geared towards linking existing market demands to an expanded range of products and/or services, in addition to those of the wildlife sector; Follow up activities to assist the development and use of coordinated monitoring of biological indicators, to reflect on the productivity of the resource and the sustainability of livelihoods dependent on them;Introduce systematic and structured collection of economic data into the monitoring and evaluation activities of the project management portfolio. This is noted as an important activity for conducting meaningful economic assessments of the CBNRM program in the future.
File An assessment of the U.S. Agency for International Development forestry program: Needs and opportunities, final report. by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
SUMMARY: This mid-1980's program assessment was conducted to determine if USAID's forestry activities, policies, strategies and linkages support the priorities and the strengthening of science and technology in US development assistance programs. Five conclusions concerning AID's global forestry programs were drawn: Sustainable economic and social development requires the integration of forestry with agriculture and village industry; The contribution of forestry to agriculture and rural development must incorporate research; Transferring technology, adapting it and implementing it are critical to the success of forestry technical assistance; Forestry support should be expanded and intensified, which will require strengthening of professional capability; The effectiveness of forestry program design and implementation can be increased with better coordination among donor agencies; Non-technical solutions to forestry problems should be explored and more sensitivity to social issues should be given. The authors recommend an increase in forestry assistance despite the large sums of money that have already been allocated to this sector. The authors note that the U.S. is especially qualified to provide forestry information due to experience in public forest administration, forest management, research and extension technologies, harvesting and processing of forest products. The urgency of following the team's recommendations is emphasized, as managed forests are slow to mature and therefore forestry programs must be initiated efficiently and rapidly.
File Project assistance completion report: Bururi Forest Project by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
This is the project completion report of the Bururi forest project, which covered some 1400 hectares of tropical montane forest in Burundi. This 4-year project started in 1982 with USAID funding of $1,144,000 and was implemented by Burundi\rquote s Institut National pour la Conservation de la Nature (INCN). The purpose of the project was to preserve one of the last two tropical montane forests in Burundi and to develop new sources of firewood and construction timber. The latter was to be accomplished through reforestation and agroforestry activities in local communities. To improve conservation of the Bururi Natural Forest Reserve, the project aimed to: Enrich forest gaps with local tree species; Construct protective fire lanes in and around the forested areas; Resettle several families who had begun farming operations inside the forest; Develop a 30 km security trail to stop unauthorized wood removal and livestock grazing. The project also planned to distribute 4000 efficient woodstoves to local people around the forest that would reduce wood requirements by 30% and to promote the substitution of peat for fuelwood, with support from an AID funded Alternative Energy Project in the region. Some changes were necessary during the project period. The paper reports that the expectation of 60% of households using peat did not materialize due to household preferences for wood and having to pay for peat rather than gathering free wood. The expectation that woodstoves reduce the demand for fuel wood by 30% in 4000 households did not materialize either, as there were numerous logistical problems in implementation of this activity. The woodstove project was abandoned after a 1984 evaluation. The goal of protecting 1400 hectares of the forest was 90% met but at the expense of households surrounding the forest, who were no longer able to collect firewood and building material from the forest. The 800 ha of plantations and agroforestry fields planted by the project will provide wood to satisfy these needs 9 or 10 years in the future, and do little to address immediate needs. The authors suggest that the ultimate success of Bururi forest conservation will depend upon expansion of agroforestry and reforestation efforts, establishment of the proposed 3km buffer zone forest plantation around the protected area to satisfy local wood needs, and long-term commitment by the Burundian government and INCN.
File Nonfarm employment in small-scale forest-based enterprises: Policy and environmental issues by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
This paper examines available literature on small forest-based enterprises to draw some conclusions on how these enterprises function, grow and change over time. Small forest-based enterprise activities are one of the largest sources of non-farm income in the rural economy of developing countries. They also account for a large part of the total harvest from forests in many areas. Income from these activities is particularly important during seasonal shortfalls in food and cash crop income and in periods of drought or other emergencies. Ease of access to forest raw materials means that forest-based activities are particularly important for the poor and for women. However, most of these activities provide very low returns to labor and may thus; provide only minimal and short-lived livelihood contributions. Some of the most important saleable forest products face uncertain markets because of growing competition from industrial or synthetic alternatives or domesticated sources of the materials. As demand grows, some activities are also threatened by depletion of or reduced access to forest resources.The author suggests that, in developing policies to support sustainable activities, it is important to distinguish between those activities that have the potential to expand and those that do not. Policy issues to consider include regulations that discriminate against the informal sector, policies that result in the shift from communally managed to uncontrolled open access of forest resources, and restrictions on private production and sale of forest products that impede the development of domesticating forest products.
File The greening of AID 1980-1990 by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
The Forestry Support Program (FSP) was a ten-year initiative implemented through the USDA/Office of International Cooperation and Development (1980-1990). Its purpose, which it accomplished, was to provide technical support to the Regional Bureaus, USAID missions, Peace Corps, and private volunteer organizations (PVOs) regarding forestry, agroforestry, social forestry and training. Surveys revealed that recipients of FSP support and information expressed satisfaction with the project. Despite FSP's helpfulness, however, respondents indicated that it lacked a larger vision to provide coherence to its technical support. The flexibility of the program has been important; although this sometimes gave a free floating impression and initiatives were not evaluated to assess their impacts, as required. The program in Ecuador is highlighted because it was especially successful, which is attributed to the technical advisor who was posted there. Likewise, it was noted that individual personalities often had more impact than the programs in which they are involved. There was general consensus among respondents that FSP should be continued, especially the referral services, technical backstopping, information services and outreach, networking, and training. Suggestions for additional services include: Making technical continuity an explicit function; Developing an effective system of evaluating technical initiatives; Increasing program scope; Performing studies of global and regional projects; Conducting follow-up studies.
File Final evaluation: Niger forestry and land-use planning project by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
The Niger Forestry Land Use Planning (FLUP) project evaluation was conducted in 1987 at the request of the USAID/Niger general development office and the FLUP project manager. The evaluation team found that significant progress has been made in the project, notably in capacity building and planning within Niger's Forest Service. Forest research activities focused on model sites for natural forest management. The model sites component was a technical success and it appeared to demonstrate that natural forest management is both ecologically and economically viable. The author notes that building upon FLUP's progress in developing this sustainable input to rural economies will require continued technical support and education. Given this and similar needs in other project components, the evaluation team recommended the FLUP project be continued and that steps be undertaken to initiate the design of a second phase.
File Country environmental studies: An annotated bibliography of environmental and natural resource profiles and assessments by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:10 AM
File CARE Development through Conservation Project: Review of the multiple use (resource sharing) programme in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park by Rose Hessmiller — last modified Jan 22, 2013 02:26 PM
KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Uganda, income generation, sustainable agriculture, sustainable forestry, buffer zone, conservation, protected areas, co-management, institutional strengthening, community participation, evaluation, lessons learned. SUMMARY: The purpose of this detailed evaluation was to review all aspects of the young Multiple Use (MU) program at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP) in order to advise the planning of the next phase. The objectives include coordinating with the Government of Uganda, implementation of natural resource conservation, changing conservation attitudes among communities, and helping to increase sustainable production of goods and services from forests and farmland. Discussions, community meetings and document review accomplished the evaluation. Although this evaluation focuses on the methodology of the pilot program, many accomplishments were highlighted, including: Rapid resource assessments have been completed; Potential MU zones have been mapped; Local institutions have been established and include local communities; Park-community relations have improved; and Pilot communities have gained sense of ownership of the forest. It is too early to determine the effects MU will have on long-term conservation. Monitoring, further definition of MU zones, land purchases and development of community organization are needed. As needs are addressed, MU should be expanded to more parishes. Expansion should be undertaken carefully, only in areas with enough wardens and with thorough consideration of its impacts, despite the pressures to expand rapidly coming from communities that are anxious to use the forest, conservationists and project financial controllers. Expansion should include purchases of land to widen MU buffer zones. It is recommended that financial, managerial, socio-economic and ecological factors be considered as this program expands. Specific problems may need to be addressed from one location to another and may require new approaches in certain parks. MU should be part of an integrated community program, tailored to each community while also encouraging inter-parish cooperation. Organizational infrastructure, such as parish committees, will help address park matters and tailor the MU zones to their needs.
File Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in Africa: A review by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 03:22 PM
SUMMARY: This compilation of case studies examines community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) experiences in Africa and analyzes the determinants of CBNRM adoption, success, and expansion. The trend toward greater CBNRM implementation is attributed to the changing nature and role of state institutions, the evolving relationship between the State and civil society, and the failure of the politically centralized approach. CBNRM is commonly not given official legal status because of lack of support from central governments and difficulties of integrating local customary rules and practices into a national legal framework. The authors suggest that the fundamental conditions for successful CBNRM include: Enabling or permissive political, legal, and institutional environment; A minimum level of social cohesion within the community; Control over resources with substantial value; Community access to technical, managerial and market information; Community access to financial resources. The review of country programs revealed the following trends at the community level: Willingness by rural communities to invest in the future at the expense of immediate benefits; A few cases of CBNRM profitability for communities and other legitimates stakeholders; Greater diversification and wider participation; Knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to NRM are changing;Need for continued support in the areas of training, technical inputs, and financing. At the macro level, however, acceptance of community initiatives is counterbalanced by inconsistency or arbitrariness of official support for CBNRM and by the weakness of its legal foundation. The authors' review of the CBNRM experience in Africa suggests that stakeholders' perceptions of the value of resources and the potential benefits from co-management of natural resources has received little attention. Greater recognition of the value of natural resources at macro and micro levels is a fundamental condition for efficient resource management.The potential expansion of CBNRM depends on the extent and the quality of linkages between communities and other stakeholders. At the local level, the main issue is less the availability of resources to be co-managed than access by communities to the skills and information needed for shared responsibility in resource management. At the national level, successful CBNRM activities should inform and influence the environment and natural resources (ENR) policy environment. Recommendations for USAID and its partners are summarized as follows: Establish a more explicit understanding of interactions at the macro level, as a basis for country strategy and strategic objective definition; Gain a better understanding of macro - micro linkages in the ENR sector, and of approaches to resource valuation; Apply knowledge of interactions, analytical tools and information technologies to institutional obstacles; Retain flexibility within a wide portfolio of supporting activities; Seek a closer fit between strategies and programs that are necessarily limited in time and a vision consistent with the long-term nature of ENR work in Africa.
File A landscape approach for reviewing USAID Uganda activities in the southwest by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 11, 2013 01:14 PM
This program-planning document for USAID/Uganda reviews USAID supported activities in southwest Uganda (1986-2001) and proposes a landscape approach for future Uganda program development. USAID funded protected area conservation, institutional strengthening, and community co-management programs in southwest Uganda during this period. The author finds that USAID investments in developing institutional relationships between communities and government bodies have created conditions for stronger local governance, improved livelihoods, and decreased environmental degradation. The Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) and the Forestry Department are devolving management authorities, responsibilities and benefits to communities surrounding protected areas. Community economic benefits are generated from tourism and protected area fees in co-management programs. USAID support of protected area management has led to decreased agricultural conversion, hunting, and illegal logging in target parks and reserves. The author recommends a landscape approach to future program design for rural development and NRM to properly respond to biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics. Other program recommendations include: Promote community co-management of natural resources; Support joint-ventures between communities and the private sector; Strengthen agreements and accountability between local groups and government; Increase the capacity of government NRM institutions; Provide training for community natural resource and enterprise management; Develop and extend technologies and systems that increase productivity, diversify household economies, and reduce natural resource degradation.
File Contribution of forestry to economic development, with special reference to employment and income in developing countries: An annotated bibliography by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:11 AM
File Strategic approaches for local community involvement in natural resources management by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:11 AM
In Senegal, the ineffectiveness of top-down development strategies has increased demands for community-based resource management. This study by the US Forest Service was conducted to find effective methods for increasing the participation of public and private institutions and NGOs. The goal was to discover methods that could be adapted to natural resource management in Senegal.USFS has learned that top-down approaches are not effective. They now reach out to communities using various methods, depending on whether the local people are involved in management of public or private forests. USFS has identified three roles for itself in community outreach: technology transfer using local knowledge, serving as a center of information, and providing financial assistance for conservation projects. Techniques of outreach include conducting Search Conferences to determine and prioritize needs, celebrating special events such as Arbor Day to increase awareness, and identifying established community leaders. They ask these leaders about community needs and form liaisons with the NGOs through community volunteers to promote networking and participation.Participatory approaches in Senegal have changed since the 1980s, and now focus on being realistic, operational, decentralized, participatory and bottom up rather than top down. Multiple approaches have been developed, including grant programs, private sector programs, multimedia training, test areas for community management, and support of Community Action Plans.The authors recommend that Senegal's government invest in creating enabling conditions for CBNRM, notably: Decentralized management; Increased information dissemination;Land tenure and policy reform; Increasing the role of women in management; Providing technical training; Offering conservation incentives; Increasing access to markets.
File Win-win approaches to development and the environment: Forest stewardship contracts: Trees for land access by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:11 AM
This paper is a synthesis of a larger USAID report, Forestry and the Environment: An Assessment of USAID Support for Farm and Community Forestry (1995). It highlights USAID efforts in the Philippines, Nepal, Gambia and Costa Rica. Developing-country governments are finding they cannot save dwindling forest resources by patrolling and repressing encroachment for logging and farming. They have neither the budgets nor the human resources to convert forests into fortresses. Creating local partnership with governments appears essential. With USAID support, several countries have begun to employ formal agreements or contracts with local communities and indigenous groups for managing forest resources. In exchange for greater control over and longer-term access to forest resources under their stewardship, local communities and user groups have demonstrated a willingness to take back the forests and manage them on a sustainable basis. From USAID's experiences, the following were identified as outstanding issues in the development of forest stewardship contracts: The lack of confidence and trust in public officials poses a major obstacle to the formation of stewardship contracts between local groups and government institutions;The common role of enforcement and policing by government agencies in these countries must be changed to one of forest extension in order to facilitate the development of stewardship contracts;Uncertainty in the distribution of benefits to local communities, particularly those without short-term income and protection from loss;ack of contract administration and organization skills among local groups.
File Community based conservation experience in Tanzania: An assessment of lessons learned by Rose Hessmiller — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:11 AM
KEYWORD: Community-based Natural Forest Management, Africa. Africa, Tanzania, ecotourism, income distribution, joint ventures, conservation, hunting, wildlife, institutions, land tenure, laws, communication, community participation, education, equity, case study, lessons learned. SUMMARY: This report is an assessment of the status of the Community Based Conservation (CBC) process in Tanzania based on a review of four selected case studies. Individual summaries of the four case studies are presented in detail separately. The following were listed as critical issues among the four case studies, which must be addressed for a successful CBC program in Tanzania: Inadequate legal and institutional frameworks for CBC control and administration; A bias towards a policing or top-down approach;Conflicting and overlapping mandates and approaches of government institutions, donors, and NGOs; Lack of clear tenure rights for communities and individuals over land and natural resources; Inadequate knowledge of CBC program; Inadequate political will in spearheading the institutionalization of CBC; Diversities or disparities between individuals, communities and sectors in terms of education, awareness, wealth, availability of natural resources and other factors; National aspirations that have consistently sidelined community aspirations and priorities; Involvement of the private sector in licensed hunting, tour operations, hotel management, and others, has not contributed positively to the development of communities; A general failure to recognize that consumptive use of wildlife has limits. Recent economic cost-benefit analyses suggest that non-consumptive options may provide better, sustainable, returns; An overwhelming problem is to find a mechanism for the equitable sharing of the resources from CBC projects.
File Study on coordination in sustainable forestry development by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:11 AM
This report derives from an analysis of natural resource management initiatives around the world aimed at determining if they are effective, if they are overlapping in their efforts, if they are beneficially coordinated, and if they place burdens on recipient countries. The authors find that most countries continue to need national and international commitment to improve natural resource management. This includes capacity building, meeting the needs of the poor, financial support, policy reforms, and coordination among neighboring countries in order to consider how policies in one country affect resource exploitation in nearby areas. From the countries' perspective, additional issues that hinder the progress of resource management initiatives include: international forest policy frameworks that are too complicated, perceived weak commitment of donors, the need to feel listened to by donors when priorities are expressed, and the need for training in order to lessen the dependence on external assistance. From the donors' perspective, the issues include: need for demonstrated commitment to the projects from host country governments, a credible policy framework, priorities established by the host country governments, mechanisms for dialog, transparency of processes, NGO participation, and identification of conflicts of interest. Developing countries are overstretched by uncoordinated international initiatives concerned with resource planning and management. Detailed recommendations are given that focus on the ability to increase coordination at national, regional and international levels. There are many areas where communication and accountability must be increased, which would help to make decentralization possible. Responsibilities should be better defined and partnerships created. To facilitate the many changes, the Forestry Advisor's Group should broaden its scope of countries, consolidate thematic groups and cultivate partnerships among them, disseminate this information, illicit feedback from host countries, continue to support policy reforms and development of national forestry programs, and strengthen linkages with other disciplines and sectors.
File Community-based natural resources management: An annotated bibliography by Portal Web Editor — last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:11 AM
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