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LTPR Matrix

by Rose Hessmiller last modified Jan 10, 2013 09:47 AM




The matrix consists of

five categories of LTPR issues...


  1. violent conflict and post-conflict instability,
  2. unsustainable NRM and biodiversity loss,
  3. insecure tenure and property rights,
  4. inequitable access to land and natural resources, and
  5. poorly performing land markets.

...and six categories of interventions:


  1. key institutional arrangements,
  2. conflict or dispute resolution,
  3. legal and regulatory framework,
  4. redistribution of land or natural resources within society,
  5. land administration and the specific mechanisms and agencies used to implement land policy, and
  6. enabling and strengthening sustainable land-use management and conservation.




The matrix is not meant to be read sequentially from left to right, nor from top to bottom; rather, it serves as a menu of issues and interventions that need to be considered within the realm of land tenure and property rights. Individual cells of the matrix represent critical intersections between issues and interventions.  Within each heading of the LTPR issues categories are subissues that include historical, cultural, political, economic, and social nuance. This nuance provides depth and complexity to the issues. For example, “Violent Conflict/ Post-Conflict Instability” in itself is generic, but when the focus is an issue dealing with displaced persons or the restoration of rule of law in a conflict or post-conflict situation, this category takes on practical dimensions for LTPR policy and program development.





Within the columns of issues described in the matrix, there is a host of LTPR subissues. Often, there is more than one issue at play in a country/regional context; thus a number of issues and a host of subissues come into play. 


Subissues illustrate the delicate balance between issue identification and analysis—that is, the identification of problems and their causes. Examples of subissues that come up under each issue category include the following.

  • Violent Conflict/Post-Conflict Instability. Deaths resulting from conflict over land and natural resources; refugees/internally displaced persons; returning combatants; inequitable land resources distribution; destruction of land records and property rights infrastructure; and weak or absent rule of law and trusted governance systems.
  • Unsustainable NRM/Biodiversity Loss. Natural resource loss, degradation, and/or unregulated exploitation; peri-urban sprawl; poor land-use planning and management; land fragmentation; and loss of and encroachment on protected areas.
  • Insecure Tenure and Property Rights. Open access; loss of indigenous rights; loss of transhumant rights; loss of equitable rights; evictions of tenants and farm workers; eminent domain; insufficient duration of rights; and limited individual or group rights defined and supported by the law.
  • Inequitable Access to Land and Natural Resources. Unequal access and distribution of resources; landlessness/squatting; resource theft; and uneconomical/nonproductive land or resource holdings.
  • Poorly Performing Land Markets. Failed/failing inheritance systems; insecure contracts; high transaction costs; limited sharecropping/rental/tenancy opportunities; constrained sales or markets; speculation; limited collateral opportunities; and failed/failing marital property practices.



Organizing the Universe of Land Tenure and Property Rights Interventions

As land is a main factor for economic production in most countries where USAID operates, it is the main focus of the LTPR framework. For the most part, land tenure will refer to the ways in which individuals or groups acquire access to land, the rights they hold, and the ways they defend those rights. Most decisions made over land have a direct and often immediate impact on NRM and property rights.

The LTPR matrix (figure above) is designed to visualize the categories of possible issues and interventions associated with land tenure and property rights. Here in Table 1, the LTPR matrix is populated to illustrate the possible range of LTPR interventions that could be employed in transitional development programming. The range of possible interventions is large but finite; not all possible interventions are noted here.  Both the range of possible interventions and the sequence in which they are applied can have either a singular effect on an issue, or a multiplying effect on a number of LTPR issues/subissues.


Selecting from among the range of possibilities and understanding the sequence in which issues and interventions need to be addressed are critical to the practice of LTPR programming. Although there is no ideal sequencing of LTPR interventions, USAID is constantly learning lessons about how the sequencing of interventions can influence outputs and impacts associated with LTPR reforms.





click here to see example of the LTPR Universe: Potential Interventions for LTPR Issues matrix



Cross-Cutting Interventions

LTPR reforms will languish or alienate significant portions of any population unless interventions are specifically dedicated to removing the legal impediments that discriminate against women and marginalized groups. Public information and capacity building are essential tools for creating and implementing policy, helping communities maintain and enforce customary rights, and ensuring that beneficiaries know and understand their rights and act on them responsibly.








LTPR Introduction

The Many Dimensions of LTPR

LTPR Framework: An Analytical and Development Planning Tool

The LTPR Matrix (issues and interventions)

USAID LTPR Lessons Learned

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