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Global Health: Science and Practice (GHSP) | May 2014 | Volume 2 | Number 2

by Portal Web Editor last modified May 23, 2014 06:38 PM
Contributors: GHSP
GHSP
Global Health: Science and Practice (GHSP), a new no-fee, open-access journal, was developed for global health professionals, particularly program implementers, to validate their experiences and program results by peer reviewers and to share them with the greater global health community.

Original Source

Here are highlights of what you will find in the May 2014 issue:

View a list of all articles by article type below, or read the entire current issue online.

Visit the GHSP website to read and comment on the articles, and subscribe to receive alerts when new articles and issues are published.

EDITORIALS

Taking Exception
Reduced mortality leads to population growth: an inconvenient truth

Reduced mortality has been the predominant cause of the marked global population growth over the last 3/4 of a century. While improved child survival increases motivation to reduce fertility, it comes too little and too late to forestall substantial population growth. And, beyond motivation, couples need effective means to control their fertility. It is an inconvenient truth that reducing child mortality contributes considerably to the population growth destined to compromise the quality of life of many, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Vigorous child survival programming is of course imperative. Wide access to voluntary family planning can help mitigate that growth and provide many other benefits.

James D Shelton

Urban health: it’s time to get moving!

The global health community should mainstream urban health and implement urban health programs to address the triple health burden of communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and injuries in low- and middle-income countries.

Victor K Barbiero

COMMENTARIES

Getting family planning and population back on track

After a generation of partial neglect, renewed attention is being paid to population and voluntary family planning. Realistic access to family planning is a prerequisite for women’s autonomy. For the individual, family, society and our fragile planet, family planning has great power.

Malcolm Potts

VIEWPOINTS

Local markets for global health technologies: lessons learned from advancing 6 new products

Key components to support local institutional and consumer markets are supply chain, finance, clinical use and consumer use. Key lessons learned: (1) Build supply and demand simultaneously. (2) Support a lead organization to drive the introduction process. (3) Plan for scale-up from the start. (4) Profitability for the private sector is an absolute.

Dipika Mathur Matthias, Catharine H Taylor, Debjeet Sen, Mutsumi Metzler

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

Are pregnant women prioritized for bed nets? An assessment using survey data from 10 African countries

Women of reproductive age are generally more likely to sleep under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) than other household members. Universal coverage increases ITN use by all family members, including pregnant women. However, BCC efforts are needed to achieve desired levels of bed net use, which is especially important for pregnant women.

Emily Ricotta, Hannah Koenker, Albert Kilian, Matthew Lynch

The quality–coverage gap in antenatal care: toward better measurement of effective coverage

The proportion of pregnant women receiving four or more antenatal care (ANC) visits has no necessary relationship with the actual content of those visits. We propose a simple alternative to measure program performance that aggregates key services that are common across countries and measured in Demographic and Health Surveys, such as blood pressure measurement, tetanus toxoid vaccination, first ANC visit before 4 months gestation, urine testing, counseling about pregnancy danger signs and iron–folate supplementation.

Stephen Hodgins, Alexis D’Agostino

Preferences for a potential longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives from women, providers, and policy makers in Kenya and Rwanda

High effectiveness, predictable return to fertility and a single, prepackaged, disposable delivery system ranked high. Side effects were generally acceptable to women if they did not last long or disrupt daily activities. Cost was considered important for providers but not so much for most potential users.

Elizabeth E Tolley, Kevin McKenna, Caroline Mackenzie, Fidele Ngabo, Emmanuel Munyambanza, Jennet Arcara, Kate H Rademacher, Anja Lendvay

Rising cesarean deliveries among apparently low-risk mothers at university teaching hospitals in Jordan: analysis of population survey data, 2002–2012

Cesarean deliveries nationally in Jordan have increased to 30 percent, including substantial increases among births that are likely low risk for cesarean delivery for the most part. This level is double the threshold that WHO considers reasonable.

Rami Al Rifai

Medical barriers to emergency contraception: a cross-sectional survey of doctors in North India

Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are extremely safe and do not interfere with implantation. Yet many surveyed physicians in India did not know that there are no contraindications to using ECPs, and many had negative attitudes about ECP users. Most were against having ECPs available over-the-counter and wanted to impose age restrictions. Efforts are needed to address such misconceptions that might lead to limiting ECP availability.

ME Khan, Anvita Dixit, Isha Bhatnagar, Martha Brady

Evaluation of community-based interventions to improve TB case detection in a rural district of Tanzania

Enlisting traditional healers and pharmacists to improve TB detection contributed 38 percent to 70 percent of new smear-positive case notifications per quarter in a rural district of Tanzania. 

Charlotte Colvin, Jackson Mugyabuso, Godwin Munuo, John Lyimo, Eyal Oren, Zahra Mkomwa, Mohammed Makame, Atuswege Mwangomale, Vishnu Mahamba, Lisa Mueller, D’Arcy Richardson

Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan

Modern quality improvement approaches enabled hospital staff to analyze barriers and identify solutions for “how” to integrate family planning into postpartum care. Private spaces for postpartum family planning (PPFP) counseling, along with involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling, substantially increased the percentage of women receiving PPFP counseling and their preferred method before discharge. Self-reported pregnancy was also significantly lower up to 18 months post-discharge compared with women receiving routine services.

Youssef Tawfik, Mirwais Rahimzai, Malalah Ahmadzai, Phyllis Annie Clark, Evelyn Kamgang

Systems approach to monitoring and evaluation guides scale up of the Standard Days Method of family planning in Rwanda

Scaling-up lessons included: (1) simplifying provider training and client materials; (2) ensuring core aspects of the intervention, for example, that the CycleBeads client tool was integrated into the supply chain system; (3) addressing provider-generated medical barriers; and (4) managing threats from changing political and policy environments. A focus on systems, the use of multiple M&E data sources, maintaining fidelity of the innovation and ongoing environmental scans facilitated scale-up success.

Susan Igras, Irit Sinai, Marie Mukabatsinda, Fidele Ngabo, Victoria Jennings, Rebecka Lundgren

FIELD ACTION REPORTS

Informed push distribution of contraceptives in Senegal reduces stockouts and improves quality of family planning services

Dedicated logisticians restocked contraceptives monthly at facilities to maintain defined minimum stock levels, freeing up clinic staff. High stockout rates were virtually eliminated. Also, quality and timely data on contraceptives distributed allowed for better program management.

Bocar Mamadou Daff, Cheikh Seck, Hassan Belkhayat, Perri Sutton

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