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CBNRM Annotated Bibliography by ARD

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CBNRM Annotated Bibliography


ADC, Inc., 1998.  Assessment of CBNRM in Southern Africa.


ARD, Inc., December 1992. Decentralization and Local Autonomy: Conditions for Achieving Sustainable Natural Resource Management. ARD/DFM.

Abstract: This report describes examples of both successful and unsuccessful management of natural resources by local institutions. Analysis of these cases focuses on several conditions that appear to increase the likelihood of sustainable management. General actions that may contribute to establishing the conditions are suggested. The report also attempts to provide examples of what can happen with local management of natural resources under certain conditions. By focusing on, and explaining a set of conditions that promotes sustainable natural resource management, this analysis helps to refine the analytical and predictive capabilities, and evaluate resource management options.


  • References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Extent of Ability to Manage>Extent of Ability to Negotiate/Community Organizations — “Preservation and Promotion of Indigenous Social Capital: The extreme variability of physical environments, as well as socioeconomic, and cultural factors argue for local solutions to NRM problems. Technical and managerial problems may require outside expertise, but ultimately intimate knowledge of a local environment, especially under changing conditions (seasonality of resource abundance, migration, etc.), is required to accommodate rule adaptations and to ensure effective monitoring and enforcement. Local understanding of technical resource issues, as well as the investments communities have made over time to solve these issues, is manifest as the communities social capital. Natural resource problems would more likely be solved if existing social capital is harnessed rather than ignored.” (p. 53)


ARD, Inc., May 6, 1996. Toward Decentralized Management of Natural Resources in Burkina Faso: Accomplishments, Potential and Constraints — Summary of Case Studies and General Conclusions. ARD, Inc./USAID.

Abstract: As part of the USAID/PADLOS program of support for decentralization in the Sahel, PADLOS commissioned ARD to develop a series of case studies on decentralized natural resource management (DNRM) in several of the CILSS member states. The aim of these studies is to provide empirical insights into DNRM and thus feed into a wider process of thinking through some of the constraints to and problems of decentralization. This report provides summaries of the four case studies carried out in the Burkina Faso.


ARD, Inc., August 26, 1996. Decentralized Management of Natural Resources in Senegal — Summary of Case Studies and General Conclusions (Available in French and English). ARD, Inc./USAID.

Abstract: As part of the USAID/PADLOS program of support for decentralization in the Sahel, PADLOS commissioned ARD to develop a series of case studies on DNRM in several of the CILSS member states. The aim of these studies is to provide empirical insights into DNRM and thus feed into a wider process of thinking through some of the constraints to and problems of decentralization. This report provides summaries of the four case studies carried out in Senegal.


ARD, Inc., August 1997. Decentralized Management of Natural Resources in the Republic of Chad (Available in French and English). ARD, Inc./USAID.

Abstract: As part of the USAID/PADLOS program of support for decentralization in the Sahel, PADLOS commissioned ARD to develop a series of case studies on decentralized natural resource management (DNRM) in several of the CILSS member states. The aim of these studies is to provide empirical insights into DNRM and thus feed into a wider process of thinking through some of the constraints to and problems of decentralization. This report provides summaries of the four case studies carried out in the Republic of Chad. The report also provides an overview of decentralization in Chad, as a series of recommendations for the future.


ARD, Inc., April 30, 1998. Decentralized Management of Natural Resources in the Republic of Niger (Available in French and English). ARD, Inc./USAID.

Abstract: As part of the USAID/PADLOS program of support for decentralization in the Sahel, PADLOS commissioned ARD to develop a series of case studies on DNRM in several of the CILSS member states. The aim of these studies is to provide empirical insights into DNRM and thus feed into a wider process of thinking through some of the constraints to and problems of decentralization. This report provides summaries of the four case studies carried out in the Republic of Niger.


Ashley, Caroline and Roe, D., April 1997. Community Involvement in Wildlife Tourism: Strengths, Weaknesses and Challenges. IIED.

Abstract: This paper explores how community involvement in tourism (CIT) can contribute to development and conservation perspectives, and how the objectives may conflict or complement each other. It questions whether CIT can achieve its high expectations. It summarizes some of the advantages and limitations of community involvement in tourism, identifies key issues based on experience to date and identifies challenges to be researched and addressed. The aim is to stimulate discussion and further sharing of experience, not to provide conclusive answers. It draws mainly on examples from southern and eastern Africa.


  • References/Citations: CBNRM>Economic Factors>Financial Resources — “Cooperation with the private sector: Most rural economies lack capital, business skills and international marketing links. Therefore small-scale locally-run enterprises may well be feasible, but community involvement in more sophisticated and profitable enterprises (safari hunting, luxury tours) probably will require inputs from the private sector. How can normal patterns of private sector involvement be adapted so that residents are not just employees, but communities have some choice and control, and act as partners? This is not likely to be easy. Establishing cooperation between communities and investors involves a lot of time, effort, and communication, (significant “transaction costs”) to develop ways of working together and find compromises of mutual benefit. Private operators are unlikely to want to enter into partnerships for the sake of it — only if they are necessary to secure profit or decrease risk in some way…” (p. 11)


Callihan, David, May 1999. Using Tourism as a Means to Sustain Community-Based Conservation: Experience from Namibia. The Life Project/MSI.

Abstract: This case study discusses the LIFE Project’s efforts to link tourism and conservation and, more specifically, shows how tourism can contribute to the development of sustainable community-based conservation organizations. The LIFE Project’s broader conservation activities, which form a majority of the LIFE Project’s efforts, are not discussed in detail within this paper.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Political Factors>Legal Factors>Legal Framework — “The scope of Namibia’s Nature Conservation Act is too limited: Namibia’s Conservancy Policy, while certainly one of the best of its kind in the world, is currently limited to providing communities rights over wildlife and tourism, and does not grant communities the right to manage other resources, including grazing land, timber and fisheries. This causes a certain lack of clarity in regard to conservancy rights, and can undermine conservancy programs when individuals undertake activities that come into conflict with wildlife management, for example timber harvesting or cattle grazing.” (p. 15)

Chenier, J. and Sherwood, S. 1998. Copan: Collaboration for Identity, Equity and Sustainability, Honduras.  Land tenure, conflict and conflict resolution in Honduras.

Chigoya, Dadirayi, 1997. How Rural People in Southern Africa Take Control - Community-based Management of Natural Resources. GTZ/Radio Bridges Overseas.

Abstract: Resource management at communal level is accomplished in various ways in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia and Botswana. In this article, the author describes some examples of how people in Southern Africa are taking their fate into their own hands.  Html document:

Child, Brian, January 2000. Community Based Natural Resource Management in South Luangwa. MS-Zambia Newsletter.

Abstract: This paper provides a summary of past CBNRM initiatives in Southern Africa, and a more detailed review of CBNRM design and implementation in the area around South Luangwa National Park (Zambia), focusing primarily on policies and institutions.


CLUSA, (revised) January 1999. Participatory Natural Resource Management: The Key to Restoration and Sustainability — CLUSA’s Approach and Experience in West Africa. CLUSA.

Abstract: This paper presents CLUSA’s approach to natural resource management, which encourages active participation of local people in the improvement and subsequent protection of forests and other natural resources. The approach is built on a system of decentralized, village-based training that conforms to adult education principles. It emphasizes the development of three key capacities for both the local people managing natural resources and the technicians assisting them:

-         the capacity to establish management structures (committees, boards of directors, etc.) capable of developing, implementing, and evaluating their own resource management plans;

-         the capacity to create and operate rural group businesses based on profitable economic activities related to the harvesting of forest products; and

-         the capacity to develop and implement rational management plans for forest-related economic activities.


Drabo, B., Banzhaf, M. and Grell, H., 1998. Towards a Platform for Development: Bringing together Pastoralists and Agro-Pastoralists in the Kishi Beiga Area, Burkina Faso.


Ellison, Kenneth, July 28, 1999. Local Governance and Participatory Natural resources Management: The USAID GOLD Project in the Philippines. ARD, Inc.

Abstract: This paper describes how the Governance and Local Democracy (GOLD) Project, as one of its principal action areas, undertook the task of assisting provinces, cities and municipalities to take an active role in assessing, monitoring and managing natural resources within their jurisdiction, in collaboration with civic institutions. To achieve this, the GOLD Project developed a “toolbox” of seven participatory techniques and technical assistance events that could be applied to a wide variety of resource management challenges: 1) local government strategic planning workshops 2) multisector technical working groups 3) community environmental action planning workshops 4) environmental summits 5) participatory environmental transects 6) co-management agreements, and 7) technical review/training workshops. 


Fisher, L., Moeliono, I and Wodicka, S., 1998. Cattle, Cockatoos, Chameleons and Ninja Turtles: Seeking Sustainability in Forest Management and Conservation in Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.  Paper presented at the 1998 International Workshop on CBNRM, Washington, DC.
Abstract: This paper draws on the experiences of the Nusa Tenggara Uplands Development Consortium, an inter-agency network which seeks to address key technical, institutional and policy issues related to poverty alleviation and environmental conservation in the Nusa Tenggara region of eastern Indonesia.  In the past three years, the Consortium’s Conservation Working Group has catalyzed and monitored the emergence of new collaborative alliances addressing the challenges of forest and conservation management in several priority conservation sites across the region.  The paper summarizes the evolution of this network and the lessons learned in mitigating conflicts and building collaborative approaches to forest management.  Key interventions developed to facilitate these multistakeholder approaches to forest management have included community organizing, coalition building, participatory research, training and capacity building, along with a variety of innovative strategies for convening diverse stakeholder groups at both the local and regional level. 


Gambill, David, June 26, 1999. Intentionally Sustainable: How Community-Based Resource Management Enables and Encourages the Sustainable Use of Resources. DevTech Systems, Inc.

Abstract: This document presents a framework to explain how CBNRM programs can help people see that it is in their own best interest to use resources sustainably, gives them the tools to do so and helps establish the conditions to use these tools. The framework presented by Gambill is based on the economic principle that people use resources in the way that provides them the most benefit. As a result, he focuses on how CBNRM activities can increase expected benefits [where expected benefits are defined as = (likelihood of obtaining benefit) x (benefit value)], by increasing both the likelihood of obtaining future benefits and the benefit value.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Political Factors>Legal Factors>Security of Tenure — “Increase the likelihood of benefiting from sustainable use: Successful CBNRM programs help communities feel more certain of obtaining benefits from resources in two ways — they ensure the community controls the resource, and they provide information needed to use the resource sustainably. Establishing effective control of community-managed resources is critical for CBNRM to succeed. By controlling a resource, the community can be certain that they can use the resource tomorrow, if they preserve it today. While control of a resource is necessary to use it sustainably, it is not sufficient. Communities also need information and skills to manage and sustainably use resources they control. CBNRM programs can provide this information and training.


Three conditions are necessary for a community to control a resource. The community must know what their resource rights are, be sure they are enforced and be sure the government or others will not rescind them. Knowing their rights lets the community plan what to enforce. Being able to enforce their rights ensures that others cannot take resources that the community preserves for future use. Being sure the government will not rescind their rights ensures the community can anticipate that it will retain control of resources it invests in or preserves.”


Gill, K. and Vogt, Kees, May 2000. Hannu Biyu Ke Tchunda Juna — Strength in Unity: Shared management of common property resources. A case study from Takieta, Niger. Securing the Commons No. 2 IIED/SOS Sahel.

Abstract: This paper traces the sequence of events from the inception of the Takieta Joint Forest Management Project in April 1995 to the establishment of a joint forest management plan in December 1999. It provides an overview of the project, its aims and approach, and describes the process followed by the project, the communities and other stakeholders of the Takieta Forest Reserve in their bid to define an inclusive management system for the forest. The aim of the paper in not to present a management model, but rather to share the project’s practical experience and to highlight key elements that have enabled a process of participatory decision-making to take place.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Cohesiveness>Clear Leadership — “A management structure needs to have the legitimacy, popular support and negotiation skills to deal with political personalities who may see the presence of the structures as being against their personal interests.” (p. 42)


Githitho, Anthony, 1998. Institutional Challenges in Conservation: the Case of the Sacred Kaya Forests of the Kenya Coast. Case study submitted for the 1998 International Workshop on CBNRM.

Abstract: In recent years, the importance of developing enabling institutional environments has been increasingly acknowledged in the conservation and development fields. Effective institutional frameworks are now regarded as crucial if continuance of positive changes is to be assured. This case study on Kaya forest conservation in Kenya does not describe a process that is in any way complete or even well-advanced. Rather it reports the result of a gradual analysis of the situation and increasing understanding of the institutional need. This has gone on while urgent circumstances have dictated that short- and medium-term activities be undertaken even before any consultation, strategic planning or formulation in the institutional area. Following an analysis of required changes, possible institutional objectives and activities have suggested themselves for the long-term conservation of Kayas. Problems and constraints experienced so far in implementation, and anticipated, are also discussed. 

Gujadhur, Tara, February 12, 1999. Regional Inventory of Practical Strategies in Community Based Natural Resource Management: Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe. SNV Botswana.

Abstract: The goal of this paper is to create and inventory of the methods, lessons and experience of CBNRM Programs (and the organizations and communities involved) in Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The report is organized by country. As the primary aim of the paper was to focus on practical implementation strategies, only a brief overview of the national CBNRM programs and enabling legislation is given.


Gujadhur, Tara, September 2000. “It’s good to feel like we own the land…” The People’s View of Community Land Rights Under CBNRM in Botswana. IUCN/SNV.

Abstract: Land tenure lies at the heart of the CBNRM concept — to a certain extent CBNRM is an endeavor to reverse the trend of colonial and post-colonial governments taking land and the control of land out of the hands of rural communities for the protection of natural resources. However, in Botswana, more and more questions have been raised as to the actual ownership and exclusionary rights of communities under CBNRM policy.  This paper explores these questions and issues of community land and natural resource tenure under CBNRM in Botswana, by using the words and expressions of stakeholders themselves. The /Xai-/Xai community in western Ngamiland (controlled hunting area NG4) is used as a case study.

Hanna, Susan, 1998. Co-Management in Small-Scale Fisheries: Creating Effective Links Among Stakeholders.  Paper presented at the 1998 International Workshop on CBNRM, Washington, DC.

Abstract: Establishing effective operational linkages among stakeholders in resource management depends on the institutional environment within which management occurs.  As resource-based industries have developed and industrialized, resource management has tended to become specialized and centralized.  Centralized management has been fraught with problems and has in many cases proven ineffective in the promotion of long-term sustainability.  The centralized approach has often resulted in poorly designed regulations, a lack of buy-in by user groups, low levels of compliance, and ineffective controls on exploitation.  As a result, interest in decentralized management approaches has increased.  Co-management is the sharing of authority and responsibility among government and stakeholders.  The main appeal of co-management is that it offers the prospect of relief from some of the more negative aspects of centralized decision making.  This paper discusses establishing effective linkages among stakeholders in the context of small-scale fishery co-management.  The main message is that underlying the establishment of linkages among governments and communities are basic economic dynamics that influence the effectiveness of those linkages.  These dynamics relate to the transactions costs of co-management and to its requirements for human capital.  Examples are provided of fishery co-management, where costs and human capital have played a critical role in the degree of management effectiveness.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Economic Factors>Perceived Benefits/Costs of CBNRM —  “Designers of co-management processes have tended to not give economic concepts like costs and capital due consideration, perhaps because co-management is sometimes seen as a way to avoid economics; a way to mitigate for the harsher side-effects of managing fisheries for economic efficiency. Co-management is often put in place to mitigate some of the problems related to economics, such as competitive exclusion or a failure to address equity…Wishful thinking and desperation are powerful forces. But economic forces are equally powerful, and costs and capital requirements are pervasive. They are reflected in the coordination, learning design, implementation, monitoring and enforcement functions of management. Costs must be accounted for explicitly so they can be contained. Capital must be accounted for explicitly so it can be built or maintained at appropriate levels. A co-management process, while offering great promise for stakeholder integration and long-term commitment, also offers these economic challenges.” (p. 8)


Heermans, John and Otto, Jonathan, February 1999. Whose Woods These Are: Community-Based Forest Management in Africa. EPIQ/IRG.

Abstract: This paper aims to call attention to the untapped potential for community-based forest management programs (CBFM) in sub-Saharan Africa. The paper discusses principles, practices, constraints and potentials for CBFM, based on recent experience. It serves to review the historical background for CBFM programs, summarizes approaches that have evolved and proved successful and identifies a resulting series of “lessons learned” from the first generation of pilot CBFM projects in Africa.


Hesse, Ced and Trench, Pippa, May 2000. Who’s Managing the Commons? Inclusive management for a sustainable future. IIED/SOS Sahel.

Abstract: This paper is the first in a series that will be published as part of the regional action-research program on the shared management of common property resources (SMCPR) in the Sahel.


  • References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Extent of Ability to Manage>Breadth of Participation — “Continuing constraints: The existence of a plethora of local organizations is not in itself an indication of a vibrant and effective civil society. Building strong, representative and equitable organizations takes time. However, the challenges and opportunities facing local institutional structures are enormous and it is far from clear, even within a climate of decentralization, how they will be able to shoulder their new responsibilities. One of the main practical issues that needs to be addressed in the short to medium term is presented below: a) ensuring local representation, accountability and participation — decentralization is no guarantee of good local governance. The critical issue is how to ensure a balance of power between the numerous stakeholders in order that all local interests, including those of minority groups, be taken into consideration as groups vie with each other for access to power.”


Hitchcock, Robert K, Masilo, R.B. and Kelly, M., 2000. Socioeconomic and Gender Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management projects in Western Botswana.

Abstract: This paper investigates the question of how beneficial CBNRM programs have been for certain segments of Botswana’s “local population”, notably women, indigenous groups, children, the elderly and disabled. The author concludes that these groups of people tend to have 1) lower access to benefits than adult males of politically powerful groups 2) lower access to positions of authority (i.e., boards of community trusts) 3) increased work loads resulting from the withdrawal of male labor, and 4) natural resources being withdrawn from the general reciprocity systems that existed due to the commercialization of natural resource products.


  • References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Extent of Ability to Manage>Breadth of Participation“…It is also crucial that local communities and the trusts that have been established work out ways to ensure that there is equitable access to the benefits of community-based natural resource management projects. More attention must be paid to issues relating to community trust formation and operation and to gender, class and overall socioeconomic equity issues. It is crucial, therefore, to incorporate local people more directly into the planning and implementation of wild resource development projects. This will ensure that these initiatives do not favor one group over others and that equity and broad-based community participation are achieved.” (pp. 15-16)


Hoben, Allan, Peters, Pauline and Rocheleau, Diane, 1996. Participation and Development Assistance in Africa. Policy Brief No. 3, USAID.

Abstract: This paper starts from the growing consensus in the development community that rural development and natural resource management projects in Africa can't succeed without local participation. Yet, donors' and governments' efforts to promote greater local participation in rural Africa have met with only limited success.  The paper explores some possible causes of this dilemma and ways to encourage more effective local participation, particularly in CBNRM projects. 

IFAD, 1995. Common Property Resources and the Rural Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. Special program for sub-Saharan African countries affected by drought and desertification.


Inges, A.W., Musch, A. and Qwist-Hoffman, H., 1999. The Participatory Process for Supporting Collaborative Management of Natural Resources: An Overview. FAO, Community Forestry Unit. Rome, Italy.

Abstract: This document is meant to provide the conceptual context for The Participatory Package, a new set of materials on participation and resource management, with a special focus on collaborative management systems, currently under development by the Community Forest Unit of the FAO. The Overview describes the extent and nature of participation in collaborative management of natural resources, and focuses on the processes and practical aspects of promoting and supporting collaborative management in ways that are acceptable to governments and resource users. The text is broken down into four chapters: Promoting people’s participation, Overview of the participatory processes for supporting collaborative management, The actors and the environment for collaborative management, and Practical aspects of managing a support program.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Extent of Ability to Manage>Breadth of Participation — “Participation can be seen primarily as a means to achieve specific goals such as building a better management structure, obtaining improved goods and services, and getting natural resources into a ‘good condition’. Participation to achieve specific purposes more efficiently requires that judgements be made about what represents ‘better management’, ‘improved services’ and ‘good condition’. The efficiency argument draws attention to the fact that participation is all about negotiating goals.


Alternatively, the most important feature of participation can be seen as its potential to enhance the power of resource users to influence things (Nelson and Wright, 1995). In this case, the purpose of the participatory process is seen as increasing the skills, knowledge, confidence and self-reliance of resource users to collaborate and engage in sustainable development. Participation becomes an end in itself rather than just a means to an end.” (p. 1)


Irani, K. and  Johnson, C, 1998. Making it Pay: Can Community-Based Biodiversity Conservation Programmes be Sustained through Market-Driven Income Generation Schemes? - Jordan.
Abstract: This case study examines the results of a pioneering project, implemented by the RSCN, which has attempted to sustain biodiversity conservation in Jordan’s protected areas through the development of community-based, market-driven income generation and tourism programs.  It describes how income generation schemes can be used to help regulate damaging resource use practices and promote more positive attitudes towards conservation initiatives.  It also draws attention to the benefits of institutional strengthening for enabling community-based approaches to be effectively implemented and sustained. 


Javed, A. and Shafqat, H., 1998.  Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Northern Pakistan. IUCN.
Abstract: This case study is based on a pilot project entitled “Maintaining Biodiversity in Pakistan with Rural Community Development”.  This is a four year nationally executed pilot project funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) through UNDP.  The project area is located in the Northern Pakistan and is characterized by a high altitude cold mountain desert ecosystem.  The ecosystem consists of high alpine pastures with scattered patches of juniper/birch forests.  The main wildlife species include snow leopard, ibex, marco polo sheep, markhor, musk deer, brown and black bear, and partridges. The case study compares the levels of efficiency and resource condition under state-controlled and private management schemes, based on village organizations. 


Jones, Brian T.B., October 1999. Community management of natural in Namibia. Issue Paper No. 90, IIED.

Abstract: This paper documents the evolution of CBNRM in Namibia, discusses the opportunities and constraints caused by the evolving policy and legislative frameworks and an interim evaluation of the CBNRM process, from the perspective of the communities. The conclusion discusses possible "next steps" and Annex 1 presents the policy and legislation supportive of CBNRM in Namibia.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Economic Factors>Distribution of Benefits — “Attention needs to be given to encouraging communities to be more open and transparent about the distribution and use of income.  Cash is often paid out to each head of household, who then returns the portion of income which it has been agreed will be used for a community project or kept in the community bank account. In this way, each head of household has seen and held the income due to them and has personally retained a portion and returned the balance. In some cases the cash is delivered by a safari hunter, providing a very direct link between wildlife use and income generation. The whole process is witnessed by a large gathering of community members…”     (p. 14)


Josserand, Henri, Sept. 2000.  Simulating the Effects of Environmental Policy Change Via Gains in the Efficiency of Natural Resource Use. ARD, Inc.
Abstract: Although the quest for better environmental policies and natural resource use is universal, little or no information is available on what such changes might imply, or on the scale of change needed for significant progress.  For example, if an African country were to raise efficiency in the use of its renewable resources by the equivalent of 25 or 50 or 100 percent overall; what would this mean in terms of trends of natural capital use?  What  would be the impact of doubling the current area in managed forests by substituting managed forest areas for natural forest and woodland areas?  Conversely, what change in resource use efficiency would it take to stabilize typical trends in the mining of renewable resources, for an "acceptable" level of depletion of non renewable resources?  To provide illustrative answers, the author has developed a simple model of a "typical" African economy.  The economy is very simply specified, by main sector of activity, with population, resource endowments and returns to resources combined with labor and other inputs. Depending on the assumptions made on gains in the efficiency of resource use, a range of net domestic resource gains is attained.  These gains are then expressed as trends in income per capita, or of a reduction in the rate of loss of natural capital, for a fixed, given level of per capita consumption.

Josserand, Henri, Oct. 2000. Analytical Tools and the Assessment of USAID Environmental Activities in Africa. USAID/AFR-SD Working Group on CBNRM in Africa.
Abstract: This paper illustrates some applications of analytical tools prepared by the Working Group to environmental and natural resource management issues, including CBNRM, at both the macro and micro levels. The discussion covers two main themes: the application of analytical tools to (a) the assessment of the relative effectiveness of USAID environmental activities in Africa, at the macro (national) and micro (local) levels, and (b) the management of thorny institutional issues. 

Josserand, Henri, Jan. 2002. Presentation of a Country Application: Community Based Forest Management in Madagascar. In December of 2001, USAID/Madagascar asked the author do carry out an assessment of CBNRM, using tools developed under this Task Order. The experiment, in six field sites over two Provinces shows that it is possible to apply some of these tools successfully, even in a rapid appraisal mode. The PowerPoint presentation also highlights the critical importance of horizontal linkages; the relations between communities and local agents from national institutions. Excel-based results from the CBNRM NetWeaver model for the six sites are available in the Madagascar Application directory of the CD.


Kant, S. and Cooke, R., 1998. Complementarity of Institutions: A Prerequisite for the Success of Joint Forest Management - A Comparative Case of Four Villages from India.
Abtract: Joint Forest Management (JFM) is an attempt to forge a partnership between the Forestry Department and local communities, based on joint management objectives, in which communities share both responsibilities and proceeds.  The critical factors for the success of JFM are: (i) the complementarity among formal institutions and between formal and informal institutions; (ii) transparency of institutions; (iii) accountability of change agents, (iv) shift in custodial paradigm of forest managers; (v) absence of uncertainties; and (vi) inter-gender equity.  In this case study, institutions of JFM in four villages located in Jabalpur district in Madhya Pradesh are examined, outcomes analyzed, and the lessons learned are discussed. 

Kelly, Valerie A, May 2000. Measuring the Impacts of Natural Resource Management Activities in the OHVN. EPIQ/USAID.

Abstract: This report is the product of a rapid appraisal to the Office de la Haute Vallée du Niger (OHVN), undertaken by the author, to assess the impacts of past and present natural resource management activities in this region of Mali. In general, the author reports very positive trends, based in large part on more than 15 years of efforts focused on: identifying technologies capable of increasing declining yields, increasing income from improved cotton production, a community approach to implementation, a focus on youth, a focus on villager/farmers most likely to benefit, incremental training, and improved support services. Looking toward the future, the author asks and addresses two questions: “is it possible to extend these results?” and “is it possible to quantify the impacts of NRM intensification activities?”


Lindsay, Jon, May 1998. Designing Legal Space: Law as an Enabling Tool in Community-Based Management. World Bank/International CBNRM Workshop.

Abstract: This paper explores the role of state law and legal institutions in creating an enabling environment for community-based natural resource management. The starting premise for this paper is that successful community-based management requires “legal regimes that allow local community-based institutions to define, preside over and redefine the rules of resource use” (Lynch, 1998).  Designing such legal regimes requires careful attention to the need for certainty and flexibility. Certainty is required in defining the limits of state power, and the rights, responsibilities and remedies of local groups with respect to the state and ‘outsiders.’ Flexibility, on the other hand, is essential to ensure that community-based efforts reflect local conditions, cultural values, and institutional choices. Based upon an examination of emerging practices around the world, some general design principles are offered with respect to a number of issues, including land and resource tenure, defining the objectives of management and other planning matters, recognition of local entities and institutional structures, definition of boundaries, the security rights, and the relationship between different government agencies.


  • References/Citations: CBNRM>Political Factors>Legal Factors — Authority of Communities —  “Local rules cannot define the limits of state power, that is the extent to which the state will respect local autonomy and where and under what conditions it will retain the power to intervene. In the best scenario, community groups, other components of civil society and government will work together to define these limits. Nevertheless, unless these limits are spelled out in state law, or somehow are recognized by the state legal system, there is little that community-based rules alone can do to enforce them.” (p.5)


Lyons, Andrew, June 2000. Lessons Learned from USAID/Zambia Investments in Agriculture and Natural Resources Management. ARD, Inc.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to extract from the diversity of experiences of the rural development investments of USAID/Zambia, the common lessons learned and the overarching issues. The three SO 1 projects reviewed include ADMADE, a community-based wildlife management project; the CLUSA Rural Business Group Program, an income generation project; and the CARE Livingstone Food Security Project, a food security project. The lessons learned are grouped into design principles, implementation tools and sustainability issues.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Extent of Ability to Manage>Training —  “Delivering Training to Communities - Lessons Learned:

-         training will remain an important component of rural development

-         repetitive training and regular follow-up in the field is required for messages and new skills to sink-in multi-tiered community-based organizations can extend the reach of  training services and improve their efficiency

-         evaluating the impact of training programs helps to determine whether the right messages and audiences are being targeted.” (p.33)


Mancin, Rinaldo César, 1998. Involving Civil Society:  The Demonstration Projects Subprogram of the Pilot Program to Conserve the Brazilian Rainforest. Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and the Legal Amazon, Brasilia, Brazil
Abstract: The Amazon region represents not only a repository of natural resources to be exploited or of sanctuaries of biological diversity to be preserved, but also a social reality, the human needs of which must be duly considered and met.  Thus, the great challenge is to reconcile three equally relevant dimensions: the economic, the social and the environmental, in a process capable of bringing the developmental aspirations of the peoples of the region into harmony with actions to promote human and social values, thus improving the quality of life of the population.

McAllister, Karen, July 1999.  Understanding Participation: Monitoring and Evaluating Process, Outputs and Outcomes. IDRC.

Abstract: This paper examines the challenges and proposes an approach for monitoring and evaluating participatory research for community-based natural resource management projects. The paper is intended to define some of the key issues and constraints facing participatory research, and to provide guidance to researchers, program and project managers interested in M&E as a tool for adaptive learning and project improvement, for integrating social theory into participatory methods, and for understanding the links between participatory processes and outcomes. The importance of using participatory M&E for bringing in the perspectives of local people whose lives are being influenced by the research is also explored.

McCay, Bonnie J, 1998. Co-Managing the Commons.  Paper presented at the 1998 World Bank International Workshop on CBNRM, Washington, DC.

Abstract: Boundaries of towns, counties, states and nations are challenged by notions of ‘bioregional’ political-cultural entities shaped by the flow of water, the brush of air and the fall of pollen.  Resource management agency missions once defined by the demands of commodity production and needs of communities formed around resource extraction have been redefined.  They increasingly focus on the sustainability of such systems and on conservation and the preservation of species and the habitats and ecological communities on which they depend.

McConney, Patrick, 1998. Creating Conditions for Community-Based Small Scale Fisheries Management in the Carribean.  Case study presented at the 1998 World Bank International Workshop on CBNRM, Washington, DC.

Abstract: Small-scale fisheries in the eastern Caribbean harvest a diverse array of living marine resources. Tuna, swordfish and billfish are among the highly migratory pelagic straddling stocks exploited.  More confined to regional and coastal areas are dolphin, flyingfish, wahoo and kingfish among the pelagics, and demersal species such as snapper, reef fishes, sea urchins, lobster and conch.  Virtually all of the fishery resources harvested are shared either regionally or internationally at some stage in their life history.  The fisheries sectors in these islands are of significant political, economic and social importance in terms of welfare through employment and assurance of income for the coastal poor.  However, the contribution to the GDP (typically less than 4%) makes them low priority as engines of economic development. Now, extended marine jurisdiction and other factors have raised the economic development aspirations of fisherfolk and governments, but at the same time there are increasing fisheries management obligations.  In the past neither fisherfolk nor governments paid much attention to fisheries management.  More recently, through a series of initiatives from the late 1980s to the present, the countries have attempted to involve resource users and other beneficiaries in the establishment and operation of fisheries management regimes.  This has meant creating suitable conditions for community-based management.

Marcoux, Alain, 1998.  Population Change - Natural Resources - Environment Linkages in East and Central Africa.  Population Programme Service (SDWP), FAO Women and Population Division.

Quote: “The role of population factors in land degradation processes obviously occurs in the context of the underlying causes. Population pressure operates through giving rise to land shortages, and through other mechanisms as well. Improper agricultural practices, for instance, occur only under constraints such as the saturation of good lands under population pressure which leads settlers to cultivate too shallow or too steep soils, plough fallow land before it has recovered its fertility, or attempt to obtain multiple crops by irrigating unsuitable soils.  Concerning water resources, there still is quite some potential for increases in water demand, as economies diversify and living standards rise. Unless large gains are made in efficient use of irrigation water and conservation or rehabilitation of damaged irrigated areas, the crunch is likely to severely damage economic competitivity in addition to health and the quality of life.” (p. 7)

Metcalfe, Simon, 1997. Dualistic Tenure of Communal Resources in Zimbabwe: Lessons from the CAMPFIRE Program.

Abstract: Policymakers in Zimbabwe are attempting to address the issue of communal tenure, and to harmonize traditional and statutory approaches.  Land resources in Zimbabwe and throughout most of Africa are administered through three overarching tenure systems: state, traditional, and private.  In Zimbabwe and elsewhere, the State has legally coopted traditional tenure.  However, the State is seriously challenged by customary authorities.  Unless and until a reconciliation between the two systems is accomplished, the political will to establish a communal land reform policy will not exist.


Murombedzi, James C., May 1998. The Evolving Context of Community-Based

Natural Resource Management in Sub-Saharan Africa in Historical Perspective. World Bank/International CBNRM Workshop

Abstract: This paper discusses the current status of CBNRM in sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of the processes that have occurred that have led to the current forms of management. The paper focuses on the evolution of different natural resource management strategies starting with the colonial expropriation of land and natural resources.


Murphree Marshall W., 1998.  Congruent Objectives, Competing Interests and Strategic Compromise: Concepts and Processes in the Evolution of Zimbabwe's Campfire Programme. Centre for Applied Social Sciences, University of Zimbabwe

Quote: “CAMPFIRE's central objectives - ecological sustainability, economic efficiency and institutional effectiveness and acceptability - are congruent.  This congruency is not however unique to CAMPFIRE.  This is a general configuration of compatible objectives and as our organisers point out constitutes much of the appeal for CBNRM approaches universally.  What singles out CAMPFIRE from the generality of CBNRM approaches in this congruence is the robust form in which it has been conceptualised.  This takes two forms.  Firstly, its analysis is a grounded one, taking as its starting point objective realities and constraints, examining alternatives and seeking a direction rationalised on the basis of viability. Secondly, it takes the congruence of its objectives but prioritises their means-and sequence differently to those of most CBNRM approaches which have common currency. To date most CBNRM approaches which have had international inception and support have been crypto-conservationist in their motivational core.  A dissonance then arises in that, current state endorsements of the international prioritisation of environmental concerns notwithstanding, the real priorities of these states are economic growth.  CBNRM approaches are therefore consistently accorded second-order prioritisation in the national contexts where they are implemented.  A further dissonance arises in national contexts. Governments are interested in economic growth, centrally led and controlled. At locality levels the priorities are the appropriation of power and value from the centre.  The CAMPFIRE Programme in its conceptual core prioritises the congruent objectives in terms of local appropriation, as a means of economic growth and economic rationality as an incentive for ecological sustainability, thus reversing the means-end sequence implicit in many CBNRM approaches.” (p. 29) 


Ndunguru, I., Hahn, R., 1998. Reconciling Human Interest with Conservation in the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Wildlife Division, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism Dar es Salam, Tanzania.
Abstract: The traditional approach to conservation during the colonial- and post-independence eras in Tanzania has been to exclude local communities from protected areas without taking into account the interactions that had existed between people and wildlife.  Given the vast size of protected areas to be administered, the Government of Tanzania has not been effective in fulfilling its conservation role.  Important protected areas are threatened by encroaching farming while some key wildlife species are declining to extinction levels due to imprudent use and shrinkage of habitats.  This case study describes efforts to reconcile human interest with nature in the Selous game reserve.  The process involved organizing community groups at village, district and central government levels as a preparatory step towards sharing the benefits and costs of conservation.  Main lessons from the experience include:

-         given the enabling environment (policy, legislation, training and trust) rural communities are managing natural resources in their land prudently;

-         the indigenous knowledge of people has to be understood, recognized, and respected, and has to be incorporated in the management of protected areas; and

-         in the long run, the natural resources in rural areas can only be sustained by the communities if they are actively committed, if it is understood that access to natural resources is essential for local livelihood, security, and survival, and when communities are responsible for its management. 

Olulumazzo, Alinon Koffii. March 2000. Improving tenure security in northern Togo: A means to address desertification. Issue Paper No. 92, IIED.

Abstract: The author hypothesizes the existence of a strong relationship between the control that different land users can exercise over their local resources and their incentives to conserve and manage them in a sustainable way. The paper discusses the prevailing situation in the savannah regions of northern Togo, in light of this hypothesis, and in relation to the design of land reform.

Ostrom, Elinor, 1998. Self-Governance and Forest Resources. Paper presented at the 1998 International Workshop on CBNRM, Washington, DC.
Abstract: Forest resources share attributes with many other resource systems that make difficult their governance and management in a sustainable, efficient, and equitable manner.  While some ‘forests’ are small enough that fencing them or protecting their borders from intrusion is relatively easy, excluding beneficiaries from access and use of most forests is costly.  The difficulty of exclusion creates the possibility that individuals who benefit from the use of a forest will not contribute to its long-term sustainability.  For many uses of a forest, one person’s harvesting subtracts products that are not available to others.  Thus, many aspects of forests can be considered as common-pool resources.  Common-pool resources are characterized by difficulty of exclusion and generate finite quantities of resource units so that one person’s use subtracts from the quantity of resource available to others. The ecosystem services generated by forest resources — watershed protection, carbon sequestration, biodiversity enhancement, etc. — may be considered as externalities or as public goods.  Ecosystem services are, however, closely tied to the sustainability of the forest stock, and are thus threatened by the same set of incentives that tempt users of an unregulated forest resource into a race to use up the timber and destroy the forest itself.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Economic Factors>Perceived Benefits/Costs of CBNRM — “When the benefits of organizing are commonly understood by participants to be very high, appropriators lacking many of the attributes conducive to the development of self-governing institutions may be able to overcome their liabilities and still develop effective agreements. The crucial factor is not whether all attributes are favorable but the relative size of the expected benefits and costs they generate as perceived by participants. While all of these variables affect the expected benefits and costs of appropriators, it is difficult — particularly for outsiders — to estimate their impact on expected benefits and costs given the difficulty of making precise measures of these variables and weighing them on a cumulative scale.” (p. 8) 


Ostrom, Elinor, 1998.  Social Capital: A Fad or a Fundamental Concept?
Abstract: Social capital is the shared knowledge, understandings, norms, rules, and expectations about patterns of interactions that groups of individuals bring to a recurrent activity. In the establishment of any coordinated activity, participants accomplish far more per unit of time devoted to a joint activity if they draw on capital resources to reduce the level of current inputs needed to produce a joint outcome.  They are more productive with whatever physical and human capital they draw on, if they agree on the way they will coordinate activities and credibly commit themselves to a sequence of future actions.  In the realm of repeated coordination problems, humans frequently face a wide diversity of potential equilibria and a nontrivial problem of finding the better equilibria in the set.  When they face social dilemma or collective-action situations, participants may easily follow short-term, maximizing strategies that leave them all worse off than other options available to them.  Somehow participants must find ways of creating mutually reinforcing expectations and trust to overcome the perverse short-run temptations they face.  The author argues that social capital is an essential complement to both physical and human capital.  

Oviedo, Paola, 1998.  Conflict Resolution as a Key Element for Conservation and Sustainable Resource Management with Local Participation: The Case of the Galápagos Islands. 

Oza, Apoorva, 1998. NGOs and Institutional Reforms: a Case Study of Irrigation Sector Reforms in Gujarat, India. A case study emphasizing the differences between public and privately managed irrigation systems, in a chronic situation of resource undervaluation and inefficient use. 

PADLOS/CILSS, September 1997. La Gestion Décentralisée des Ressources Naturelles dans Trois Pays du Sahel.  Imprimerie Saint-Paul. Dakar, Senegal.

Abstract:  This book, as part of the USAID/PADLOS program of support for decentralization in the Sahel, presents a series of case studies on DNRM in three of the CILSS member states; Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal. The aim of these studies is to provide empirical insights into DNRM and thus feed into a wider process of thinking through some of the constraints to and problems of decentralization.


Parker, J. Kathy, 1999. Analysis of Three Case Studies about Strengthening Community Institutions for Natural Resource Management. Paper presented at the November 4, 1999 USAID Workshop on Growth-Environment “Win-Win” Opportunities Through Natural Resource-Based Industries. 


Parker, J. K, McFadden, M., Miller, B. and Saunders, M, 2001. Knowledge Engineering Process Steps: NetWeaver™ Applied to Community-Based Natural Resource Management.

Abstract: This document serves two basic and integrated purposes that address some of the challenges to USAID to achieve its goal, sustainable development, are particularly daunting, since multiple and diverse biophysical, social, economic, institutional, political and other factors contribute directly and indirectly to its complexity.  First, it focuses on the initiation of CBNRM in Africa as a general problem area.  The authors used a new tool — NetWeaver™ — to provide insights on the definition of variables, and the dynamics and interaction between and among these variables related to CBNRM.  Second, the authors used it to enhance understanding of complex systems and assist management in decision-making that contributes to the successful initiation of CBNRM.

Rathgeber, Eva, 1998. Women, Men, and Water-Resource Management in Africa. IDRC, Nairobi, Kenya.
Quote: “At a global level, demand for water is increasing steadily, with a general trend toward diversification of use away from agricultural activities. Currently, about 70% of world freshwater resources are used for agricultural purposes, but with rapid global industrialization this is expected to decline to 62% by the year 2000 and to even less thereafter. Moreover, with increasing populations and improved living standards, domestic demand for water has grown significantly in all parts of the world, including Africa.  This paper examines some of the concerns that have motivated African governments and donors to become involved with water projects. Although there is general recognition of the needs of "communities" for reliable water systems, it is argued that the different attitudes, perspectives, and needs of women and men with respect to water access and use have been given little focused attention by environmental planners and water-resource managers in Africa. More specifically, it is suggested that throughout the 1970s and 1980s, although concerted efforts were being made to increase water accessibility, little effort was made to integrate the economic roles of women into water-resource planning.” (p. 1) 

Rozenmeijer, N. L. Cassidy, Smith, R. and van Bussel, F., July 1999. Background Paper: National Conference on Community Based natural Resource Management in Botswana. IUCN/SNV/NRMP Botswana.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on CBNRM in Botswana, to the National Conference participants and to present the key issues pertaining to CBNRM which resulted from the workshops. The three workshops organized by IUCN, SNV and USAID’s NRMP focused on community mobilization, enterprise development, and natural resource monitoring.


Rozemeijer, N. L. and van der Jagt, C., February 28, 2000. Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) in Botswana: How community based is CBNRM in Botswana?  IUCN/CBNRM Support Program.

Abstract: This paper addresses: 1) how the power relations between all stakeholders involved shape the CBNRM approach in Botswana, 2) to what extent the decision making and regulation reside with the local resource users and, 3) how much of the benefits of resources management accrue to the local community. The CBNRM-related policy framework is discussed in the context of the gradual development of the Botswana approach. Another section explores the institutional context of decentralized natural resources management: the role and interests of the central government and the local authorities, both modern and traditional. A following section explains the roles and interests of the other stakeholders who are involved in CBNRM: the private sector and the NGOs.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Cohesiveness>Community Cohesiveness — “Communities are key to a successful CBNRM process. Continues efforts have to be made to build the capacity of these communities by (local) government, NGOs and the private sector to take up the challenge and become real partners in natural resources management instead of mere recipients. Sufficient time and support should be allocated to allow community organizations to develop as representative of the different interests of the local resource user groups (by class, ethnicity and gender) so as to ensure equitable and sustainable participation in management, decision-making and benefit sharing.”    (pp. 20-21)

Shah, Anil, 1998.  Participatory Process of Organizing Effective Community-Based Groups. Development Support Centre, India
Abstract: Many countries including India have gathered experience, usually with NGO initiatives, of development and management of local resources through community organizations.  Most are still grappling with the issues of promoting community organizations and then scaling up participatory approaches and making it sustainable, less demanding of continuing support from development agencies.  Public policies for natural resource management have to deal with several issues while evolving an approach for sustainable management in many areas that are environmentally and socioeconomically diverse and fragile. Governments are now seeking to develop new partnerships with local communities.  The motivation may be alleviating poverty or regenerating degraded lands or preserving biological diversity and may be economizing on government expenditure — but governments are increasingly seeking ways to encourage the local communities to organize into groups and take responsibility for planning the development and managing the resources that would satisfy their economic and social needs, giving them a sense of ownership of these resources.


Shrestha, Bharat, 1998. Changing Forest Policies and Institutional Innovations: User Group Approach in Community Forestry of Nepal. Agricultural Projects Services Center, Nepal.
Abstract: The case study intends to assess and analyze user group-managed community forestry management in the hills and mountains of Nepal, with an emphasis on institutional innovations in recent years.  The need for a user group approach in community-based forest management, in the present context, has been widely accepted due to the increased level of deteriorating environmental conditions, and thereby negative implication for rural poverty.  Therefore, the case primarily relates to the economic and social factors that aim at reducing rural poverty.

Smirenski, Sergei, 1998. The Establishment of a Private, Non-Commercial Protected Territory: the Case of Muraviovka Park of Sustainable Land Use in Amur Region, Russia. Muraviovka Park of Sustainable Land Use, Amur Region, Russia
Abstract: This case study describes the successful community management of a protected area in Amur Region, involving two types of renewable natural resources: watersheds and biodiversity, including endangered species of cranes and storks.  

Talaue-McManus, L. et al., 1998. Participatory Coastal Development Planning in Bolinao, Northern Philippines: a Potent Tool for Conflict Resolution. Marine Science Institute, The Philippines.
Abstract:  Case of a community dealing with a major development proposal to set up a cement plant complex (including a quarry site, power plant, cement factory, and wharf for water transport of bulk cement toTaiwan).  The proposal was the first major initiative towards industrializing the ‘Northwestern Luzon Growth Quadrangle.  The ensuing controversy was a classic case of industrialization vs. environment, Lingayen Gulf having been declared an environmentally critical area.  The Bolinao-Anda reefs, comprising the only coralline section of the Gulf, function as the spawning and feeding grounds for a significant number of fish and invertebrate species.  Fueled by a vigorous program on public environmental education, environmental awareness quickly gained momentum and evolved into one of mass-based advocacy calling for a more appropriate mode of coastal development.  In August 1996, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources disapproved the proposal with finality amidst local, national and international outcry to sustain the natural resource-based life support system of coastal communities. 

Toulmin, Camilla, Quan, Julian, DFID, 2000. Evolving Land Rights, Policy and Tenure in Africa.  Proceedings of the February 1999 Sunningdale Workshop on Land Rights and Sustainable Development in Africa. 
Key Findings:

-         There are many approaches to addressing land policy and tenure changes in Africa, as well as a growing body of experience with implementing reforms. This provides a sound basis for sharing experience between different countries and stakeholders. A mechanism to facilitate this process of learning lessons would be very valuable.

-         Governments have been forced to recognize the relatively limited role they can play in direct allocation and management of land. Nevertheless, they retain an important set of tasks concerning the framework of law and underlying principles. They must establish the authority of those institutions given the powers to manage land and resolve conflicts. Also, there may be need for a significant redistribution of land between different groups.

-         Law needs to draw upon the values and aspirations held by society, and cannot be drafted in a vacuum. Hence, widespread consultation processes are needed to permit effective engagement by a broad range of actors, in discussion of proposed legal reforms and the institutional options for implementation.

-         Reforms to land tenure and administration have major political implications. Choices must be made about attribution of responsibilities and rights, such as between reliance on established customary systems and the establishment of elected local government structures. In each case, there will be pros and cons, with neither choice offering a perfect solution. Thought must be given to providing checks and balances on the powers attributed, whichever institutional option is chosen.

-         Many land reform programs have begun with pilot measures to test out their feasibility and need for amendment before launching a nation wide approach. Use of pilot schemes seems much more appropriate than trying to do everything at once, since it allows for a focus on priority areas where land issues have become acute, as well as learning how best to tailor reforms to fit local conditions.

-         Governments face tight budgetary constraints and need to consider the costs of land reform measures in the light of their likely benefits. There may be considerable advantages to building on existing institutions, modified as necessary, rather than trying to establish a brand new set of structures which require staff, operating budgets, and time to establish their legitimacy.

-         There has been systematic neglect of resource and tenure systems which do not fall into the neat categories of conventional land law. Hence, pastoral grazing rights, common property resource management systems, the position of women, and the wide range of institutional arrangements by which people gain access to resources always appear, if at all, as an afterthought to debate on land policy. This is despite the enormous importance of the commons for securing rural livelihoods, the pivotal role of women in ensuring the food needs of many farming households, and the economic value of the pastoral livestock sector to many African countries.

-         Contempt of customary law remains common in many countries. Even where registration of customary land use is underway, establishing private title to land often remains the underlying purpose of land reform. Yet, registration of collective rights could be a much simpler, cheaper and potentially far more equitable process.

-         Processes of land policy and tenure reform take time and require an integrative approach. Establishing new systems and implementing new legislation will require strategic choices to be made, and a feedback mechanism set up to allow amendments to be made as lessons are learned. The many components of civil society have a valuable part to play in helping to guide government position its land policy in relation to social, economic and political objectives.


Trenchard, Peter, Karch, G.E., Bockarie, A. T., et al., January 1997. Final Evaluation of the Botswana Natural Resources Management Project. TR&D/USAID.

Abstract: This evaluation report evaluates the Botswana portion of the Regional NRMP, a USAID-funded project designed to assist the Government of Botswana to promote sustainable, conservation-based development of lands that are marginal for crop production and domestic livestock. The scope of the evaluation was intended to answer three questions: 1) has the project had the results for which it was intended? 2) what project activities and results will yield significant local impacts and provide models for regional application? and 3) what activities have not achieved the anticipated results or could have significantly greater impact if continued beyond the current cooperative agreement?


  • References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Extent of Ability to Manage> Community Organizations“Time is required to overcome uncertainty and vested interests in establishing independent and self-sufficient CBOs: The initiation of each CBO has been linked to changes in peoples’ attitudes and perceptions. These changes have manifested themselves in new relationships among community members, communities, communities and the GOB, and communities and the private sector. But, regardless of demonstrated benefits from trusts, there seems to be a certain inertia against these new relationships that may be related to uncertainty about what the new relationships will bring, especially in a country such as Botswana where the GOB, as a generous benefactor, meets many of the basic needs of rural communities. For whatever reason, the resistance to change allows self-interest to play against the establishment of CBOs and extends the time required for a CBO to become self-sufficient and independent.” (pp. 6.1-6.2)


Uphoff, Norman, May 1998. Community Based Natural Resource Management: Connecting Micro and Macro Processes, and People with Their Environments. World Bank, 1998 International CBNRM Workshop.

Abstract: This paper (the introductory paper to the World Bank’s May 1998 International CBNRM Workshop) highlight issues and offers some analytical concepts and frameworks that can assist in systematic evaluation of CBNRM as a strategy for serving both conservation and development objectives. It also represents some CBNRM experience from countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, with which the author has some personal, first-hand knowledge.


·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Institutional Factors>Vertical Communication — Linkages that Transcend Communities: “This thematic focus highlights the need for CBNRM to look beyond the community. Important questions include: What kinds of horizontal linkages exist, or can be forged, between and among group/community/local organizations at the same level? This focuses attention on linkages among actors having similar interests and capabilities. To what extent is CBNRM seen as an isolated activity, or, much better, as a method for mobilizing local leadership and efforts to manage natural resources that is understood and acceptable to similar organizations elsewhere? This speaks to the question of spread effect.


Along the same lines, what kinds of vertical linkages exist, or can be forged, between organizations at the group, community or local levels and higher levels? This focuses on linkages with district, national and even international actors. To what extent is CBNRM limited in its outreach and upreach, not having influence beyond its local domain and not having access to outside resources (authority and expertise as well as funds and personnel). This speaks to the question of effectiveness. Autonomous local institutions if isolated and unlinked may be impotent rather than empowered.


To what extent is work at the group/community/locality levels associated with broad coalitions of actors that represent different sectors and levels, bringing multiple perspectives and capabilities to the enterprise of CBNRM?” (pp. 21-22) 

USAID, 1999. Protecting the Environment - Strategic Goals and Areas of Concentration.
An overall statement of the Agency's strategy, definition of the challenge, goals and areas of concentration, and operational approaches at the global and country levels. 

USAID, AFR-SD, 1999. SO5 Performance Monitoring Plan.  Adoption of Improved Policies, Programs and Activities for the Spread of Sustainable Natural Resource Management in Africa. 

PowerPoint presentation of the FRAME project.  

USAID - NRM Tracker

PowerPoint presentation of the NRM Tracker activity and Web site 

van der Jagt, C., Gujadhur, T. and van Bussel, F., 1999. Community Benefits through Community-Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) in Botswana. IUCN/SNV.

Abstract: This paper is intended to analyze community benefits from CBNRM, as a means of addressing two key issues at stake, in the implementation of CBNRM activities in Botswana:

CBNRM initiatives in Botswana to date, predominantly focused on generating financial benefits as quickly as possible, for example by selling the entire community wildlife quota to a commercial hunting company. The example was more or less set by the CAMPFIRE approach in Zimbabwe. But do large sums of money acquired by a community in Botswana automatically contribute to an improvement in the living conditions of its people? How are these monies used? How do subsistence economies cope with an increasing commercialization of the available natural resources? Are there no alternative benefits from CBNRM to be generated?

The initial CBNRM initiatives in Botswana were implemented in the north of the country (Chobe district) and for obvious reasons there is a tendency to draw lessons learned from early experiences. However, the context of the project in Chobe is entirely different from situations in other parts of Botswana and depends on the prevailing natural resources and related livelihood strategies, culture and history, levels of material well being and education. The authors argue that the choice of CBNRM approach and related options for the generation and utilization of benefits should be situation-specific.


  • References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Extent of Ability to Manage>Extent of Ability to Negotiate & CBNRM>Economic Factors>Perceived B/C of CBNRM “Generation of benefits through CBNRM: The type and amount of benefits created will differ per option. The selection of approaches to generate benefits will depend on the potential offered by the natural resource base and on the (lack of) confidence in communities in their own management ability.” (p. 24)


Warner, Michael and Jones, Philip, 1998.  Assessing the Need to Manage Conflict in Community-Based Natural Resources Projects, Overseas Development Institute.

Abstract: This paper considers the role of ‘conflict management assessment’ in community-based natural resource projects. The importance of conducting an assessment of the potential for conflict and its management in relation to a project intervention is stressed, and an assessment framework described. Within this framework the advantages of managing conflict through a consensual ‘win-win’ process of stakeholder negotiation are discussed. Html file:

Woodwell, John, 2000. Dynamic Modeling of Ecological-Economic Systems.

Abstract: This work illustrates a knowledge-based approach to modeling focusing on causal relationships among variables.  It explicitly recognizes that many relevant variables, such as natural capital, well being, sustainability, human or social capital, among others, are difficult or impossible to measure directly.  In the traditional approach, indicators would serve as proxies for these variables, and then statistical analyses might reveal statistical relationships among those indicators.  In this systems approach, the emphasis is on the causal relationships among the variables, with less emphasis on the development of regression-ready data.  Whereas the traditional approach is well-suited to testing hypotheses, the systems approach is well-suited to developing hypotheses.  It is also well-suited to laying out future scenarios that provide answers to “if-then” questions about possible policies, events, or relationships among variables.  These future scenarios can help extend the intuition and reach of those decision makers who necessarily operate at, or beyond, the scope of the available data. 

  • The modeling approach is also described in this PowerPoint presentation:

Woodwell, John, 2001. Simulation Modeling of Hypotheses for African Development.

Abstract: This simulation model is a hypothesis concerning basic ecological-economic relationships in Africa.  The model was developed over the course of several months in a series of meetings with experts convened by USAID Africa Bureau’s Office of Sustainable Development (AFR/SD). The model was written in a systems dynamics modeling environment using the Stella simulation-modeling package.  The iterative approach of meetings, discussion, and model development is central to the process of forming and reviewing these hypotheses.  The model expresses a basic understanding of ecological-economic relationships, and provides a point of focus for the conversation among interested experts.  The conversation then informs the process of model development.  In this way, insights that follow from the model at one stage of development spur further insights that inform its further development.

The World Bank, 1999. Findings - Community Based Natural Resource Management in West Africa. 


Zaal, F., Laman, M. and Sourang, C.M., April 1998. Resource Conservation or short term food needs? Designing incentives for natural resource management.  Issue Paper No. 77, IIED.

Abstract: This paper discusses the role which incentive systems can play in supporting natural resources management in dryland areas of the world.  The authors present a conceptual framework that can be used to assess past experiences and may help to design appropriate policy and project interventions. The paper concludes that incentive systems are both necessary and feasible to assist resource users to maintain and improve their agricultural production and the natural resources on which this production relies.

·    References/Citations: CBNRM>Social Factors>Extent of Ability to Manage>Level of Innovation — “The responsibility for allocating incentives confers power on the giver, which can be misused. Channeling incentives through a local institution can help to build up that body, while shifting the spotlight from project staff. However, local institutions can sometimes be in the grip of particular individuals, and under those circumstances a balance between local and donor institutions may be needed, to ensure the needs of the whole target group are met. Where several projects are operational in one area, there is an urgent need for consistency with regard to the type and level of incentives being offered. Coordination and good working relationships between neighboring projects take time and resources, but are necessary.” (p. 12)

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